Tuesday, January 31, 2017

3rd Battalion, the Sikh Regiment 2006 India stamp

The Sikh Regiment is one of the highest decorated regiments of the Indian Army, with 72 Battle Honours, 15 Theater Honours and 5 COAS Unit Citations besides 2 PVCs, 14 MVCs, 5 KCs, 67 VrCs and 1596 other gallantry awards. The history of the Regiment spans 161 years with heroic deeds of valour and courage which have few parallels if any.

Regimental Insignia: A lion, symbolic of the name Singh that all Sikhs have encircled with a sharp-edged Quoit  or Chakra.

Regimental Motto: Nischey Kar Apni Jeet Karon (I Fight For Sure To Win).

Honours & Awards:

 2 Param Vir Chakras,
2 Ashok Chakras,
14 Maha Vir Chakras,
14 Kirti Chakras,
64 Vir Chakras,
15 Shaurya Chakras,
75 Sena Medals 
25 Vishisht Seva Medals. 

Although the Regiment's official history dates back to 1846, the biological heritage has its roots in the noble teachings and sacrifices made by the ten Gurus. The Sikh Regiment of today has imbibed the culture and chivalry of Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh's erstwhile Khalsa Army.

The ethos and traditions of the Regiment formalised  with the raising of 'Regiment of Ferozepore Sikhs' and Regiment of Ludhiana Sikhs' on 01 August 1846  by Captain G. Tebbs and Lieutenant Colonel P. Gordon respectively. A major portion of the substance of the Regiment traces its origins to Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Army. With a humble beginning of two battalions in 1846, today the Sikh fraternity has grown 20 battalions strong.

The battle of Saragarhi fought by 36th Sikh (now 4 Sikh) in 1897, is an epitome of Valour, Courage, Bravery and Sacrifice. Havildar Issar Singh with 21 Other Ranks made the supreme sacrifice repulsing 10,000 of the enemy.

This sacrifice was recognised  by the British Parliament, when it rose to pay its respects to these brave young soldiers. All 22 were awarded the Indian Order of Merit (IOM), the then highest decoration for the Indian soldiers. This 'Kohinoor' of the Sikh Regiment is one of the ten most famous battles of the world. Even to this date,

this battle forms part of the school curriculum in France. 12 September 1897, the day of the Battle of Saragarhi is celebrated as the Regimental Battle Honours Day.

Department  of Posts pevilage issued Commemorative postage stamps  during 150th Anniversary of the 3rd Battalion, the Sikh Regiment

Issued Date: 01.02.2006
Denomination :500 Paise

Monday, January 30, 2017

Jnanpith Award Winners : Kannada 1997 India Stamps

Bendre is one amongst the most versatile writers in Kannada. He was co-recipient of the Jnanpith Award for 1973 for his outstanding work Naku–tanti (Kannada)

Dattatreya Ramachandra Bendre, shortly known as D. R. Bendre was a famous Kannada poet of the Navodaya Period. He wrote under the pen-name - Ambikatanayadatta.

He was the second person from Kannada literature to win Jnanpith Award He won it in 1974 for the collection of poems Naaku Tanti. He also held the title ‘Karnataka kula Thilaka’ conferred by Udupi Adamaru Math. He has also received Padma Shri – 1968, Sahitya Academy award – 1958, Kelkar prize – 1965 and Sahitya Academy fellowship – 1968. Girish Karnad made a Kannada documentary film, D. R. Bendre based on his life.

Bendre was born on 31 January 1896 in Dharwad, Karnataka. Both his father and grandfather were Sanskrit scholars. He lost his father and a young age and he completed his primary and high school education in Dharwad with the help of his uncle. He joined the Fergusson College, Pune for higher studies. After completing degree, he started his career as a teacher at Victoria high school of his hometown. Very soon he got married and years later, he obtained his Master of Arts degree in the year 1935. He became a Kannada professor in D.A.V. College, Solapur between 1944 and 1956. In 1956 he became advisor of AIR, Dharwad.

His literary works were started in simple romantic words. But later his words went deeper into social and philosophical matters. A few of his poetry collections include – Krishnakumari, Matte Shravana Bantu , Krishnakumari mattu Haadu Paadu, Chaityalaya, Hridayasamudra, Naku Tanti, Yaksha Yakshi, Jeevalahari, Kuniyonu Baa, Ta Lekkaniki Ta Dauti, Pratibimbagalu, Olave Namma Badaku, Vinaya and many more. His playwrights are Tirukara Pidugu, Uddhara, Hosa Samsara mattu Itara Ekankagalu, Ambikatanayadatta Nataka Samputa and Hucchatagalu.

His critic works include - Sahitya mattu Vimarshe, Kavi Lakshmishana Jaimini Bharatakke Munnudi, Kannada Sahityadalli Nalku Nayakaratnagalu, Sahityada Viratsvaroopa and Kumara vyasa. A few of his critic works include - Sahitya mattu Vimarshe, Kavi Lakshmishana Jaimini Bharatakke Munnudi and Kannada Sahityadalli Nalku Nayakaratnagalu. Apart from these works he has translated a few works and edited a few too. 

Department of Posts were privilege in  issuing commemorative postage stamp on  four Jnanpith Award Winners : Kannada [K. V. Puttappa (1967), *D. R. Bendre (1973)*, V. K. Gokak (1990), M. V. Iyengar (1983) :

Issued Date : 28.03.1997
Denomination: 200 Paise

Sunday, January 29, 2017

International Year of Crystallography 2014 India stamp

The science that examines the arrangement of atoms in solids. " crystallography" derives from the Greek words crystallon "cold drop, frozen drop" What is a crystal? - crystalline if the atoms or ions that compose it are arranged in a regular way.

Department of Posts issued A commemorative postage stamp on International Year of Crystallography 

Issued  Date : 30.01.2014
Denomination : 2000 Paise

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Swami Pranavananda 2002 India

Swami Pranavananda also known as Yugacharya Srimat Swami Pranavananda Ji Maharaj, was the founder of the organization known as the Bharat Sevashram Sangha. He is remembered for his pioneering efforts to bring the modern Hindu society into the new age without compromising the essential values of ancient traditions of Hindu spirituality. Swamiji was one of the greatest spiritual leaders of modern India. He is still revered very much for his message of universal  love, compassion for all humanity and social reform without giving up the nationalist zeal, the love of mother land.

He was born on 29 January 1896, the auspicious day of Maghi Purnima (16th Magha, 1302), in Bajitpur, a village in Faridpur District in undivided India (presently in Bangladesh).

His parents Vishnu Charan Bhuia and Saradadevi were very pious and blessed by Lord Shiva to have a son for the mitigation of human suffering and universal emancipation. He was affectionately named Jaynath by his father at birth and later in his boyhood he was called Binode. Binode showed uncommon philosophical inclinations since childhood and often could be seen in deep contemplation at the village school. He was popular with the children of the locality because of his helpful nature.

He visited Gorakhpur in 1913 and met Yogiraj Baba Gambhirnathji Maharaj. This meeting proved to be a landmark event in his life and he was formally initiated by Baba Gambhirnathji Maharaj into the world of spirituality.

Pranvananda launched a mission to carry out social services and spread his spiritual ideas in the tradition of Hindu (Sanatana Dharma) religion. The mission took a formal shape as Bharat Sevashram Sangha on the Maghi Purnima day in the year 1917.

He wanted this organization to strive tirelessly and selflessly to awaken and unite all sections of the people to build strong India. Overseas missions were also founded to spread the traditional Hindu message of universal love and devotion to all humanity. The Sevashram built many cottage industry centres, monastic schools, primary schools and free dispensaries in urban and rural areas in east India. Branches were started in different parts of the country for various humanitarian tasks, including relief work at the time of flood, famine, earthquake and pestilence.

They also run many non-profit guests houses, clinics and hospitals all over India, helping anybody that shows up to seek help, irrespective to any discrimination of religion, caste and creed.

He was a great source of inspiration to many freedom fighters of India, extending moral and material help to them. He worked tirelessly till the last day of his life on 8 February 1941 awakening, uniting, and strengthening the people of India. 

Even today One can not fail to notice the [Bharat Sevashram Sangha] volunteers dressed in saffron robes and wearing traditional Hindu turbans at every major religious or cultural congregations and fairs, guiding devotees, pilgrims, tourists and lending helping hand to local civic authorities in traffic management.

Department  of  Posts issued commemorative postage stamp on Yugacharya Srimat Swami Pranavananda Ji Maharaj 

Issued Date : 03.12.2002
Denomination : 500 Paise

Lala Lajpat Rai 1965 India

Lala Lajpat Rai was a prominent nationalist leader who played an important role in India’s struggle for freedom. He was a prominent member of the famous ‘Lal Bal Pal’ firebrand trio during the independence movement. His fierce brand of patriotism and potent vocalism against the British rule earned him the title of ‘Punjab Kesari’ or the Lion of the Punjab.

He also initiated the foundation of Punjab National Bank. In 1897, he founded the Hindu Orphan Relief Movement to keep the Christian missions from securing custody of these children. He was badly injured in police lathi-charge on the activists, who were protesting the arrival of Simon Commission, and died a few days later due to the injuries. 

Lala Lajpat Rai was born on January 28, 1865 to Munshi Radha Krishna Azad and Gulab Devi at Dhudike village in Ferozpur District. Munshi Azad was a scholar of Persian and Urdu. Lala’s mother was a religious lady who inculcated strong moral values in her children. His family values allowed Lajpat Rai the freedom of having different faiths and beliefs.

He received his elementary education in the Government Higher Secondary School, Rewari where his father was posted as teacher. Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to study Law. While in college he came in contact with patriots and future freedom fighters like Lala Hans Raj and Pandit Guru Dutt.

He studied law from Government College in Lahore and thereafter started his legal practice in Hissar, Haryana. Since childhood he had a desire to serve his country and therefore took a pledge to free it from foreign rule. In 1884 his father was transferred to Rohtak and Lala Lajpat Rai came along. He married Radha Devi in 1877.

In 1886 the family shifted to Hissar, where he practiced law. During the 1888 and 1889 annual sessions of the National Congress, he participated as a delegate. He moved to Lahore to practice before the High Court in 1892.

Lala Lajpat Rai was a voracious reader and everything he read left a great imprint on his mind. He was deeply impressed by the ideals of patriotism and nationalism outlined by Italian revolutionary leader Giuseppe Mazzini. Inspired by Mazzini, Lalaji became indoctrinated into the revolutionary way of attaining freedom. He, together with other prominent leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosh from Bengal, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak from Maharashtra, began to see the negative aspects of moderate politics advocated by many leaders of the Indian National Congress. They voiced their strong opposition to the Congress’ demand for gradual progress to dominion status and began voicing the need for complete independence or ‘Purna Swaraj’.

In personal views he was a great believer in inter-faith harmony, but he did not think right of the trend by Congress leaders to sacrifice Hindu interests to appease the Muslim section of the party. Lala was one of the few leaders who realized the difficulties of a united anti-colonial struggle and a possible source of religious conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the country. His proposal for "a clear partition of India into a Muslim India and non-Muslim India" on December14, 1923, in The Tribune, met with major controversy. 

Lajpat Rai gave-up his legal practice and put all his efforts towards freeing his Motherland from the shackles of the British Imperialism. He recognized the need for presenting the state of affairs in the Indian Freedom struggle to prominent countries in the world in order to highlight the atrocious nature of the British rule in India. He went to Britain in 1914 and then to the USA in 1917. In October 1917, he founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York. He stayed in the USA from 1917 to 1920.

In 1920, after his return from America, Lajpat Rai was invited to preside over the special session of the Congress in Calcutta, (now Kolkata).

He led fiery demonstrations against the British in Punjab in protest for their brutal actions at Jallianwallah Bagh. When Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement in 1920, he plunged into action leading the movement in Punjab. When Gandhi decided to suspend the movement post Chauri Chaura incident, Lajpat Rai criticized the decision and went on to form the Congress Independence Party.

The Simon Commission visited India in 1929 with the aim to discuss constitutional reforms. The fact that the Commission was comprised solely of British delegates greatly angered the Indian leaders. The country erupted in protest and Lala Lajpat Rai was in the forefront of such demonstrations.

On October 30, 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai led a peaceful procession to oppose the arrival of the Simon Commission in Lahore. Intercepting the march, Superintendent of Police, James A.Scott ordered his police force to 'lathi-charge' at the activists. The police targeted Lajpat Rai, in particular, and hit him on the chest. This action left Lala Lajpat Rai with severe injuries. He died of a heart attack on November 17, 1928. His followers squarely placed the blame on the British and vowed to avenge his death. Chandrasekhar Azad along with Bhagat Singh and other associates plotted the assassination of Scott but the revolutionaries shot J.P. Saunders, mistaking him as Scott.

Not only Rai was this heavyweight leader of the Indian Nationalist Movement, his views on patriotism and nationalism earned him the status of a venerated leader.

He inspired young men of his generation and kindled latent spirit of patriotism in their hearts. Young men such as Chandrasekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh were driven to dedicate their lives for the sake of freedom of their Motherland following his example. 

Lala Lajpat Rai made lasting impression in the minds of his countrymen not only by his leadership abilities, but made his presence felt in fields of education, commerce and even healthcare. He was a follower of Dayanand Saraswati and helped establish the nationalistic Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School. He initiated the established of a bank which later evolved as the ‘Punjab National Bank’. He established a trust in his mother Gulabi Devi’s name in 1927 and oversaw the opening of a tuberculosis hospital for women named Gulabi Devi Chest Hospital.

The Department of Posts issued commemorative  stamp in vertical and depicts the portrait of the personality, on his Birth Centenary

Issued Date: 28.01.1965
Denomination : 15 Paise

Friday, January 27, 2017

Thillaiyadi Valliammai 2008 India

A South African Tamil lady named Thillaiyadi Valliammai. She worked with Gandhi in his early years when he toned his nonviolent methods in South Africa, fighting the apartheid there.She was born on 22-02-1898. As a patriot she fought the British to get freedom in her young age, Even Annal Gandhi praised her as one invoked independence feeling to her and remained as his ideal.

Date Of Issue : 31.12.2008
Denomination : 500 Paisa

Thursday, January 26, 2017

Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir 2001 India

Poet, teacher and leader ... in the truest sense of the word ... Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir was all that and more.

He epitomized a generation of leaders who came into the world of politics as a logical extension of the task they had undertaken when they joined the freedom struggle.

Sardar Gurmukh Singh was Jathedar of Sri Akal Takht for a brief period and also General Secretary of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.), Amritsar.

Later, along with a number of Akali leaders, he joined the Congress party and was President of the Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee and a member of the Congress Working Committee.

*He then served as Chief Minister of Punjab, after almost four terms of five years each as a Member of the Indian Parliament. Later, he went back to Parliament in New Delhi to serve another two terms*.

Gurmukh Singh was the son of Sujan Singh. He was born on January 15, 1899 at Adhval, in Campbellpore district, now in Pakistan. He became a teacher at the age of 19, he passed Honours in Punjabi while in service, and this earned him the title Giani. "Musafir" was a takhallus  (nom-de-plume).

The 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar and the 1921 Nankana Sahib Massacre in which many Sikh pilgrims were killed, left a deep impact on the young man. Thereafter, he became so involved in the Gurdwara Reform Movement that he had to give up his teaching career.

He recited his own patriotic poems at Sikh gatherings. He was imprisoned for his role in the Guru-ka-Bagh agitation in 1922, when Sikhs had launched a peaceful protest against a mahant.

Later that year, he was appointed Jathedar of Sri Akal Takht (March 12, 1930 to March 5, 1931). He also briefly held the post of Secretary, S.G.P.C., and General Secretary, Shiromani Akali Dal.

While we focus on the activist, we must not forget the writer. The renowned Principal Teja Singh once wrote: "With his vast experience, Gurmukh Singh Musafir draws his stories from life itself. He tells about suffering with a pen dipped in blood. And the paper on which he inscribes his tale gets lacerated."

The experience included much incarceration. Gurmukh Singh also courted arrest in the Civil Disobedience program that the Indian National Congress started in 1930.

He was imprisoned from 1939-41 and 1942-45 for his involvement in the Satyagrah and Quit India agitations. The imprisonments took their toll.

His father died when he was in prison. He could not even attend the last rites of an infant son. And his grief at the death of Rajinder Kaur, his 19-year-old daughter, came out in the form of a poignant short story, Baaghi di dhee, which was later made into a film.

In his book on Gurmukh Singh Musafir, the eminent writer Kartar Singh Duggal says: "Gianiji's greatest support in life was his wife (Ranjit Kaur) -  a lady cast in a heroic mould. But for her, he could never have involved himself the way he did in the freedom struggle. She suffered trials and tribulations, but did not wince for a moment. During his repeated absences from home, she looked after the family, and brought up and educated the children the best she could. There were days when there was not enough to eat. There were days when the children had to be removed form their schools for non-payment of fees."

Once, as Gurmukh Singh was being arrested, a bystander taunted him about his duties regarding his wife and children. That very night, in prison, he wrote the moving poem on his wife: Jeendi rahe mere bachian di maan.

He had five sons - Mandev, Parmdev and Sachdev live abroad. Jaidev and Jatinder Dev have passed away.

In 1947, Gurmukh Singh became president of the Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee and was made member of the All-India Congress Working Committee, a position he retained for twelve years.

He was elected a member of the Lok Sabha successively in 1952, 1957 and 1962. He did not complete his last term in the Lok Sabha and resigned in 1966 to take over as Chief Minister of the reorganized State of Punjab on November 1, 1966 for a short while.

Musafir re-entered Parliament, this time as a member of the Rajya Sabha 68-74, and for the second term thereafter.

All through his life, he continued writing and his published works include nine collections of poems - Sabar de Ban, Prem Ban, Jivan Pandh, Musafarian, Tutte Khamb, Kav Sunehe, Sahaj Seti, Vakkhra Vakkra Katra Katra and Dur nere; eight of short stories - Vakkhri Duniya, Ahlane de Bol, Kandhan Bol Paian, Satai Janvari, Allah Vale, Gutar, Sabh Achcha, and Sasta Tamasha; and four biographical works - Vekhia Sunia Gandhi, Vekhia Sunya Nehru, Baaghi Jarnail and Vihin Sadi de Shahid.

He represented Indian writers at international conferences at Stockholm in 1954, and at Tokyo in 1961. He was a good speaker, with a considerable stage presence, as a result of which he was much in demand.

Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir died in Delhi on January 18, 1976. He was posthumously decorated with Padma Vibhushan, and his book of short stories, Urwar - Par won the Sahit Akademy Award, again posthumously.

A trust, named after him, was set up in his memory that very year and it has a memorial in the shape of a 260-seat auditorium with a small library and reading room in Sector 24, Chandigarh, Punjab.

The trust also published all his literary works in four volumes in 1999, which marked the centenary of his birth. Department of Posts issued Commemorative postage stamps  on him was issued in 2001.

His only surviving daughter, Sardarni Joginder Kaur Sant, lives in Chandigarh. She is General Secretary of the Trust. She has kept the flame of her father's memory alive.

Issued  Date  27.01.2001
Denomination : 300 Paise

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Inauguration of the Republic of India 1950

Our Motherland India was slave under the British rule for long years during which Indian people were forced to follow the laws made by British rule. After long years of struggle by the Indian freedom fighters, finally India became independent on 15th of August in 1947. After two and half years later Indian Government implemented its own Constitution and declared India as the Democratic Republic.

Around two years, eleven months and eighteen days was taken by the Constituent Assembly of India to pass the new Constitution of India which was done on 26th of January in 1950. After getting declared as a Sovereign Democratic Republic, people of India started celebrating 26th of January as a Republic Day every year.

Celebrating Republic Day every year is the great honour for the people living in India as well as people of India in abroad. It is the day of great importance and celebrated by the people with big joy and enthusiasm by organizing and participating in various events. People wait for this day very eagerly to become part of its celebration again and again. Preparation work for the republic day celebration at Rajpath starts a month before and way to India Gate becomes close for common people and security arrangement done a month before to avoid any type of offensive activities during celebration as well as safety of the people.

A big celebration arrangement in the national capital, New Delhi and State capitals takes place all over the India. Celebration starts with the National Flag unfolding by the President of India and singing National Anthem. Following this Indian army parade, state wise Jhankis, march-past, awards distribution, etc activities takes place. At this day, the whole environment becomes full of the sound of National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana”.

Students of schools and colleges are very keen to celebrate this event and starts preparation around a month before. Students performing well in the academic, sports or other fields of education are honoured with the awards, prizes and certificates on this day. Family people celebrate this day with their friends, family and children by participating in activities organized at social places. Every people become ready in the early morning before 8 am to watch the celebration at Rajpath, New Delhi in the news at TV. At this day of great honour every Indian people should sincerely promise to safeguard the Constitution, maintain peace and harmony as well as support in the development of country.

Then the  Department of Posts issued four commemorative  postage stamp that shows rejoicing the inauguration of the Republic of India.

Issued  Date 26.01.1950
Denomination : 2,  3 1/2, 4 & 12 Annas

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Election Commission of India 2010

The Election Commission of India has decided to celebrate 25th January, its Foundation Day as the 'National Voters Day' to enhance participation of citizens in the democratic electoral process. Various election awareness programs will be organised through out the UT of Lakshadweep on 25th January 2017. Public functions for the felicitation of newly registered voters will be held at all the polling stations and the Electoral Photo Identity Cards(EPICs) shall be distributed to them.Diamond Jubilee Exhibition The Election Commission of India (ECI) celebrated 60 years of its constitution on 25th January 2010 as the Diamond Jubilee Anniversary. The office of the Election Commission was set up on 25th January, 1950, while the rest of the Constitution came into force a day after i.e. on 26th January, 1950. It is also significant that Article 324 that created the Commission was one of those exceptional provisions, which were given effect as early as on 26 November, 1949. 

Then The President of India, Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, inaugurated the Diamond Jubilee Celebrations. The Vice-President, the Prime Minister, Speaker of Lok Sabha, Union Ministers of Law & Justice and Communications & Information Technology, Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, Chairperson of the UPA and Convener of NDA have shared the dais.

The theme chosen for the Diamond Jubilee year 2010 is, "Greater Participation for a Stronger Democracy". There was an yearlong events/ programs covering areas like improvement in electors registration, expanding the coverage of Electoral Photo Identity Cards (EPICs), voter-friendly measures,generating awareness among voters, mobilization of the youth and civil society partnership.

The significance of this day isto encourage more young voters to take part in the political process, Government of India has decided to celebrate January 25 every year as *'National Voters Day'*

Department of Posts issued A commemorative postage stamp on ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA

Issued  Date : 25 - 01- 2010
Denomination : 500 Paise

Madhusudan Dutt 1973 India

Madhusudan Dutt was born in Jessore (now in Bangladesh). As a student of the Junior School of Hindu College, Calcutta, he gave evidence of extra-ordinary proficiency in English language. By the time he was nineteen, he embraced Christianity and became ‘Michael’ Madhusudan. Up till 1847, his father met all is expenses, but soon afterwards Madhusudan was stranded and left for Madras where he started his career as an English teacher. Even though his first long poem was published in English, he decided to employ his poetic talent in the service of his own mother tongue, on the advice of a well-wisher. By 1856 he went back to  Calcutta and stayed there for six years till he sailed for England.

The years which he spent in Calcutta constitute the most flourishing period in Madhusudan’s literary career. Three dramas, two satirical sketches and four poetical works were published during the short span. His Kavyas created a revolution in Bengali poetry, some of them being noted for their bold diction and others for their tender lyrical note.

He translated Dinabandhu Mitra‘s ‘Nildarpan‘ into English. During his stay in  France,  he composed sonnets and also a few poems. After a few years’ stay in London and  Versailles, he returned to India and was admitted as an advocate of the Calcutta High Court.

Being given to living beyond his means, he ran into huge debts easily, and his last days were beset with financial crises. Madhusudan imbibed within him deep respect for classical studies both Eastern and Western, spirit of revolt against orthodoxy, sympathy for progressive social changes like remarriage of widows, and love for his mother tongue. He was connected with the ‘Mechanic’s Institute’, ‘Bidyotsahini Sabha’, and ‘Belgachia Theatre’. He was a child of the Bengali Renaissance in the truest sense of the term.

He lost  his  breath on Jun 29, 1873 at Kolkata, India

The Department of Posts issued commemorative  stamp in vertical and depicts the portrait of the personality, on the Death Centenary of Michael Madhusudan Dutt 

Issued Date: 21.07.1973
Denomination : 20 Paise

Monday, January 23, 2017

Konkan Railway 1998 India

It was in 1882 that the first plans were made to link the picturesque western coast of India with a railway line. But the Formidable Sahyadri Mountains, the innumerable creeks and rivers proved too great a challenge at that time.

The railway system had begun just a few decades earlier. *The first railway line on the Indian sub , from Bori Bunder  to  Thane  a distance of 21 miles had been opened to traffic on April 16, 1853*. Since then, it had grown to a total of 62,915 route kilometres [by 1998]. However, on the western coastline of the country, there was a crucial missing link.In 1984, more than a century after the first tentative survey, fresh plans are drawn up for a railway along this route. The survey was conducted over four years, upto 1988, and the Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd., (A Government of India Undertaking) was set up with Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala in 1990 under the Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) principle.

It was a formidable task. The terrain through which the line traverses is the most difficult encountered in the history of railway construction. Crossing the route involved building 92 tunnels, 179 major bridges, 2,819 minor bridges and 59 stations. There were some long tunnels – the  tunnelin  Karbude (Ratnagiri) is 6.5 kms in length, the longest in the Indian Railway System. Some tall viaducts also needed to be built, such as the one in the Panval Nadi valley in Ratnagiri, the  tallest  bridge in Asia.
It stands at a height of 64 metres, surpassing even the height of Qutub Minar. The construction was finally completed on January 24, 1998 in the Golden Jubilee year of Indian Independence.

The building of the Konkan Railway system succeeded in a whole host of technological  innovations. The long tunnels have been  designed with ballast-less tracks, to ensure a smooth ride and reduce noise, apart from making it maintenance free. The deck of the Panval Nadi Bridge consists of a single continuous pre-stressed concrete box girder, manufactured and pushed from one end by the incremental launching system.

The 423.25 metre long continuous box girder, weighing 4,400 tonnes, was pushed from one end, using a force of a mere 715 tonnes over temporary bearings provided with Teflon lubricating pads mounted on each pier. The piers are octagonal in shape and hollow inside, designed to withstand the highest seismic forces.The Konkan Railway has the distinction of trying this technology for the first time in India, and its success was acknowledged by two prestigious awards – Most Outstanding Concrete Structure of India Award for 1994, from the American Concrete Institute (ACI), and the National Award for the Most Outstanding Bridge in 1995, from the Indian Institute of Bridge Engineers.Over the years, the Konkan Railway had spur economic growth in this region that has been handicapped by a lack of infrastructure, despite rich mineral and agricultural resources. The journey on the fast track to progress has just begun

The Department of Posts feels privileged to issue this commemorative stamp on the occasion of dedication of the Konkan Railway to the Nation.

Issued Date : 01.05.1998
Denomination : 800 Paise

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose 1964 India

"To my countrymen I say, forget not that the greatest curse for man is to remain a slave. Forget not that the grossest crime is to compromise with injustice and wrong. Remember the eternal law - you must give life, if you want to get it. And remember that the highest virtue is to battle against inequity, no matter what the cost may be." ........ Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. 

Born on 23rd January 1897 in Cuttack in the federal state Orissa , Subhas Chandra Bose became one of the most controversial figures in Indian history during the 20th century. 

Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Though Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have garnered much of the credit for successful culmination of Indian freedom struggle, the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose is no less. He has been denied his rightful place in the annals of Indian history. He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indian masses. 

Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and graduated with a First class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill his parents wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services. In England he appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920, and came out fourth in order of merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway to return to India in 1921

After returning to India Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress. On Gandhiji's instructions, he started working under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he later acknowledged his political guru. Soon he showed his leadership mettle and gained his way up in the Congress' hierarchy. In 1928 the Motilal Nehru Committee appointed by the Congress declared in favour of Domination Status, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, and both asserted that they would be satisfied with nothing short of complete independence for India. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League. Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement specially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged.

Subash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After a year he was released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe. He took steps to establish centres in different European capitals with a view to promoting politico-cultural contacts between India and Europe. Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and jailed for a year. After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and Subash Chandra Bose was released. Shortly afterwards he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938. During his term as Congress President, he talked of planning in concrete terms, and set up a National planning Committee in October that year. At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took place early 1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee. Clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block.

Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta. In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that "an enemy's enemy is a friend", he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India. In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war. He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it lliberated Andeman and Nicobar Islands. The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18 ,1944.

However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective. Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945. Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.

Then  The post and Telegraphs Department feels privileged to bring out two commemorative stamps in his honour, 15 np showing Bose in military uniform, and 55 np showing Bose and the Indian flag. 

Issued  Date: 23. 01.1964
Denomination: 15 & 55 Naya Paise

Tarun Ram Phookun 1977 India

Tarun Ram Phookun, polpularly known as 'Deshabhakta', was born in Guahati in Kamrup District of Assam on Jaunuary 22, 1877.

Tarun Ram was a prominent political leader, hunter and writer from Assam. He was a true patriot, who worked for his country and countrymen. Respecting Tarn Ram Phukan’s intense love for his country, Assamese people call him “Deshbhakta” (meaning “One who Love his country” or simply Patriot).

Tarun Ram Phukan  completed schooling from Cotton Collegiate School, Guwahati. In 1896, Phukan went to Calcutta and studied at Presidency College. In 1901, he left for England and earned Bar-at-Law degree from London. After becoming Barrister, Phukan returned to India and joined Calcutta High Court. Later he also served as Lecturer at the Earle Law College in Guwahati, Assam. He also served as Chairman of the Municipal Board and Local Board of Guwahati.

In 1920, Phukan joined the Congress Party. He jumped into the Non-cooperation Movement. Phukan played an important role in establishing Indian National Congress in Assam. In 1921, Assam Provincial Congress Committee (APCC) was formed in Guwahati. As Tarun Ram Phukan was still practicing law, he didn’t contested for presidentship and Kuladhar Chaliha became the president. In 1921, when Mahatma Gandhi visited Assam, Phukan was his trusted companion. After British declared Congress an illegal body, Tarun Ram Phukan got arrested. He remained in jail till November, 1922. That year, Phukan attended the Gaya Session of Indian National Congress and supported Swaraj Party, proposed by Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru. In 1926, Phukan became the Chairman of the Congress Reception Committee and also got elected to the Congress Working Committee for the year 1927.

Tarun Ram Phukan worked for spreading education upliftment of the under-privileged sections of society. He fought for removal of untouchability and advocated equality of the sexes. He appealed to the womenfolk of India to come out from the boundaries of their house and play an active role in national affairs. He opposed cultivation and consumption of the Opium. Tarun Ram Phuka popularised use of Khadi and other Swadeshi goods in Assam. He also established a Leper Asylum in Guwahati.

Tarun Ram Phukan was a great orator and also a prominent writer. He narrated his hunting experiences in several works. He served as the President of the Assam Sahitya Sabha at its Goalpara Session in 1927. In his presidential adress at the Sahiya Sabha session, Phukan said: “We Assamese are a distinct nationality amongst Indians. Though our language is Sanskrit based, it is a distinct language.” He also served as President of the Assam Chhatra Sammelan in 1928.

Tarun Ram Phukan was a patriotic leader, who worked for freedom and well being of the masses. He breathed his last on July 28, 1939. Then The Posts and Telegraphs Department feels privileged to bring out a commemorative stamp in honour of this great son of India on the occasion of his birth centenary.

Issued Date : 22/01/1977
Denomination :25 paise

3rd UNIDO's General conference 1980 India

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish/Portuguese acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.

UNIDO believes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a crucial role to play in accelerating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The Organization therefore works towards improving the quality of life of the world's poor by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise in the following three interrelated thematic areas:

Poverty reduction through productive activities;Trade capacity-building; and Energy and environment.

Activities in these fields are strictly aligned with the priorities of the current United Nations Development Decade and related multilateral declarations, and reflected in the long-term vision statement, business plan and mid-term programme frameworks of UNIDO.

assists developing countries in the formulation of development, institutional, scientific and technological policies and programmes in the field of industrial development; analyzes trends, disseminates information and coordinates activities in their industrial development; acts as a forum for consultations and negotiations directed towards the industrialization of developing countries; andprovides technical cooperation to developing countries for implementing their development plans for sustainable industrialization in their public, cooperative and private sectors.

UNIDO thus works largely in developing countries, with governments, business associations and individual companies. The Organization's "service modules" are Industrial Governance and Statistics, Investment and Technology Promotion, Industrial Competitiveness and Trade, Private sector Development, Agro-Industries, Sustainable energy and Climate Change, Montreal Protocol, and Environmental management.

UNIDO was established as a UN programme in 1966 with headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1985.

In 2009, UNIDO created a new flagship publication, Making It: Industry for Development.

More than 171 states are members of UNIDO. The organization employs some 600+ staff at Headquarters and in field representations in about 80 countries, and draws on the services of some 2,800 international and national experts (approx. 50% from developing countries) annually, who work in project assignments throughout the world.

UNIDO's headquarters are located at the Vienna International Centre, the UN campus that also hosts the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization.

Department of Posts issued stamps during  3rd UNIDO's General  conference

Issued  Date: 21.01.1980
Denomination :100 paisa

Friday, January 20, 2017

Hindu College Delhi 1999

Ram Mohun Roy started Hindu College as school in Calcutta with the help of Justice H. East David Hare. This college was later renamed as the Presidency College.

The school is the oldest modern western-type school in India and one of the oldest existing schools in Asia. The school is declared as a "National Heritage in institutional education, History and Social Reform" by the Government of India. This institution is nicknamed as the Eton of the East from the British era for its academic excellence during the Bengali renaissance era and afterwards.

The  Department  of Post Issued commemorative postage stamp on Hindu College  during its centenary  celebration 

Issued  Date : 17- 02-1999 
Denomination : 300 Paise

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Maharana Pratap 1998 India

Remembrances the great Rajput warrior Maharana Pratap

The Greatest Rajput Warrior Maharana Pratap And What Today’s Hindu Leaders Must Learn from Him

Rana Uday Singh of Mewar had 33 children, among them the eldest was Pratap Singh. Self-respect and virtuous behaviour were the main qualities of Pratap Singh. Pratap Singh later popularly was known as Maharana Pratap.

Maharana Pratap was a confident person of dignity and self-respect. He was a devout Hindu who always valued Vedic traditions. During Maharana Pratap Singh’s time, terrorist Akbar was the Mughal Ruler in Delhi. His policy was to make use of the strength of Hindu kings to bring other Hindu Kings under his control. Many Rajput kings, abandoning their glorious traditions and fighting spirit, sent their daughters and daughters-in-law to the harem of Akbar with the purpose of gaining rewards and shallow honor from Akbar. It was only Maharana Pratap who courageously fought against terrorist Akbar and other mughal ruler

Maharana Pratap Born on May 9, 1540 at Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan, (India) was a leader who preferred a life of struggle rather than sacrificing his ideals of freedom and self-respect. He was a great warrior devoted to noble causes and he will be remembered as the most shining example of courage and valour epitomizing in himself the highest traditions of Rajput chivalry. Maharana Pratap passed away on 19th January 1597 A.D. at Chavand, Rajasthan, India

The Department of Posts  issued this special  commemorative postage stamp commemorative postage stamp to mark the conclusion of 400thdeath anniversary of the great Rajput warrior Maharana Pratap.

Issued on Jan 19, 1998
Denomination : 200 Paise

Tex-Styles India 1995

TexStyles India
 Asia's premier B2B Textile Show.

Annual meeting platform for  buyers across the globe to transact textiles business.

The most comprehensive coverage of the Indian textile industry with the best companies in each field such as cotton, silk, wool, synthetics, powerloom, jute, blended and other fibres.

Tex-Styles India is a trade event which draws the best of not only participants from India, but also the best of buyers from across the world

India Trade Promotion Organization (ITPO) the premier trade promotion agency of the Govt. of India for organizing trade fairs, is committed to showcase excellence achieved by the country in diverse fields especially trade and commerce. ITPO as the nodal trade promotion agency of the country has had a pioneering role in the national trade growth dynamics since its inception. Apart from its role in bringing the Indian businesses, particularly those in the MSMEs sector, closer to global markets.

It was first to popularize trade fairs as a tool of trade promotion within the country.

Assist buyers in selecting the most appropriate products. Special pavilions and facilities like Theme Pavilion, Fabric Folio Pavilion depicting the collection of swatches from all sectors of the Indian textile industry including participating firms and others are set up apart from forecasters depicting designer interpretation of Spring/Summer trends.

The only textile show in the world which provides buyers a one-stop platform for purchase of every conceivable textile products produced by India i.e. furnishings, selected floor coverings, fabrics, accessories etc.

Products displayed are specially adapted for overseas markets and cater to the forthcoming Spring-Summer and Autumn-Winter seasons. The range, quality and diversity of products exhibited are rarely seen elsewhere under one roof.

Issued  Date :18. 01.1995
Denomination : 200 Paise

Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran MGR 1990 India

Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran  popularly known as MGR to the masses was born on January.17.1917 at Kandy, Sri Lanka.

He joined the Madras Boys Dramatic Company and started his career as a Drama artiste (1930 – 1936) and later moved to Cinema and established himself as popular actor (1936 – 1977).

He later joined politics and became well known by his white fur cap, dark sunglasses and two finger victory sign which also indicated his party symbol of two leaves.

He was elected as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in 1977 and served in that office for two consecutive terms (1977 – 1987).

He died on December.24.1987 aged 70 years while in office at Chennai.
Drama & Cinema Artiste
He made his debut in Tamil cinema in 1936 and acted in over 125 movies in a career spanning four decades. His first film as supporting cast was Sathi Leelavathi (1936) and leading cast was Rajkumaari (1947) and his last movie was Maduraiyai Meeta Sundrapandiyan (1977). 

His performance in memorable roles in all genres – mythological, historical, fiction, action, adventure, romance etc, attracted fans over the world who organized a record number of nearly 35000 fan clubs.

All his movies had social and political messages in their storyline, characters, dialogues and songs which propagated Dravidian ideals.

He also directed and produced four blockbuster Tamil movies – Nadodi Mannan (1958), Adimai Penn (1969), Ulagam Suttrum Valiban (1973), Madurayai Meetta Sundarapandiyan (1977) under his own production houses – Sathya Studios and Emgeeyar Pictures. 

Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu He was initially associated with Indian National Congress (1947 – 1953) and DMK (1953 – 1972). He  founded ADMK in 1972 which was later renamed AIADMK in 1977. He was its first  General Secretary  (1972 – 1987).

He steered his party to a landslide victory in the Assembly elections in 1977 and served as the longest Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (1977 – 1987). He was the first popular cinema actor to be elected as Chief Minister of an Indian State.

He introduced the Mid Day Meals Scheme which provides free nutritious noon meals, besides free uniforms and books to all children in government schools.

He established the Medical, Tamil and Women Universities of Tamil Nadu. He organized the Fifth World Tamil Conference in 1981 at Thanjavur. 

The Krishna Water Scheme or Telugu Ganga Project to provide drinking water supply to Chennai was conceived and launched during his tenure. 
*The Government of India posthumously conferred on him the Bharat Ratna in 1988. He became the first personality from Cinema and the third Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu to receive this honour. He is the fourth person to be awarded posthumously*.

In 1971 He received the Film Fare Awards and National Award for Best Actor  for Rickshawkaran. – Bharat Award

His film Malai Kallan (1954) won the President Award for Best Feature Film, while Kavalkaraan (1967), Kudiyiruntha Koyil (1968), Adimai Penn (1969) and Maduraiyai Meetta Sundarapandiyan (1978) won the Best Feature Film Awards from Tamil Nadu Government.

He received Honorary Doctorates from the University of Madras and World University of Arizona for his contributions to Cinema and Public Service.
Fellowships Memberships
He served successively as Member of Tamil Nadu Legislative Council (1962 – 1967) and later Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly (1967 – 1987).

*He is the first candidate to win a legislative election in absentia from a foreign land while he was undergoing medical treatment in USA in 1984*

He was bestowed the titles of Puratchi Nadigar, Puratchi Thalaivar, Makkal Thilagam and Pon Mana Chemmal and Kalaivendhan.

His Autobiography titled Naan Yen Piranthen ( Why was I born) was published posthumously in 2003 in 2 volumes.

He founded and edited Anna daily newspaper and Thai weekly magazine.
A number of Biographies on MGR have been published by various authors in Tamil and English including The Image Trap: M G Ramachandran in Film and Politics 1st Edition by M.S.S Pandian
Philanthropic activities
The Dr MGR Charitable Trust runs the Dr MGR Home and School for Speech and Hearing Impaired and the Dr MGR Janaki Arts and Science College for Women at Chennai.

Department  of  Posts  commemorative  postage stamp on  MGR on his  73rd Birth Anniversary

Issued  Date :  17. 01.1990 
Denomination: 60 Paise

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Nani A. Palhivala 2004 India

Nani Palkhivala, Indian jurist and civil rightsactivist who was revered in India as a top authority on constitutional  law and government finance.

Born On 16-1-1920 in Bombay he was known as Nani Palkhivala—a household name, not only amongst lawyers, but throughout the length and breadth of our country.  who became an authority and a guardian of our Constitution in later years

Physically he was not impressive. A young, slim boy measuring about 5 feet 7 inches in height and not having many kilos to carry. Nani Palkhivala was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth. He hailed from a humble Parsi middle-class working family. His ancestors were in the profession of making and fixing “palkhis,” namely, palanquins, to be fitted to horse carriages of those times. Hence the surname Palkhivala, which like many Parsi surnames, is associated with a particular calling or profession.

Nani Palkhivala’s schooling was in Master’s Tutorial High School in Bombay. He was a brilliant student and did extremely well despite his initial handicap of stammering which he overcame by sheer willpower. After matriculation he joined St. Xavier’s College, Bombay and completed his MA in English Literature. In younger days, he did take to music and played the violin reasonably well. But the spell of Apollo was short-lived. Music was not one of his passions in later life.

Palkhivala applied for a Lecturer’s post at Bombay University. To his surprise and regret, a Parsee girl was appointed to the post. With admission to most other courses closed, he enrolled at Government Law College, Bombay. This is one instance how destiny plays a role in one’s life.

If Palkhivala got the Lecturer’s post, we would have had a brilliant Professor but the world of law and public life would have been a loser. Nani was eternally grateful to the young lady Professor

It was not long before Palkhivala started arguing cases himself. The validity of the Administration of Evacuee Property Act and the Bombay Land Requisition Act were challenged. Nani was in the forefront of the legal challenges to these Acts which, however, were repelled by the Bombay High Court. Those familiar with the legal profession know that a lawyer often makes his mark not only by the cases he wins but by the quality of his performance in cases where the ultimate result is not favourable. 

He felt that the action of the Government of India apart from being unconstitutional was in breach of  constitutional  morality. He firmly believed that:

“The survival of our democracy and the unity and integrity of the nation depend upon the realisation that constitutional morality is no less essential than constitutional legality. Dharma(righteousness; sense of public duty or virtue) lives in the hearts of public men; when it dies there, no Constitution, no law, no amendment, can save it.”

Freedom of expression and freedom of the press are the cornerstones of democracy, the Ark of the Covenant of our Constitution. A disingenuous attempt was made to stifle press freedom through the machinery of the import control regulations by imposing severe restrictions on the import of newsprint. This judgments is another instance of the generous protection accorded to press freedom by our judiciary.

Palkhivala had deep respect, indeed reverence for the Constitution. He realised the importance of preserving the cardinal values of the Constitution, its basic and essential features. His favourite quotation was the statement of Joseph Story, the great American jurist, who said:

“The Constitution has been reared for immortality, if the work of man may justly aspire to such a title. It may, nevertheless, perish in an hour by the folly, or corruption, or negligence of its only keepers, THE PEOPLE.”

Nani, however, was at his forensic best in his arguments before the Bench which was specially constituted to reconsider Kesavananda Bharati. In the words of one of the Judges on the Bench “the heights of eloquence to which Palkhivala had risen have seldom been equalled and never been surpassed in the history of the Supreme Court”.

Decision of the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills was another of Nani’s triumphant efforts to prevent the defacement and defilement of our Constitution. His unsurpassable advocacy in the case led the Supreme Court to declare that clause (4) of Article 368 of the Constitution which excludes judicial review of constitutional amendments was unconstitutional.

Nani’s intimate knowledge of taxation law and mastery of constitutional principles were at play in the challenge to the validity of th The citation he received from Princeton University is worth reproducing as it epitomizes Nani’s basic qualities:

“Defender of constitutional liberties, champion of human rights, he has courageously advanced his conviction that expediency in the name of progress, at the cost of freedom, is no progress at all, but retrogression. Lawyer, teacher, author, and economic developer, he brings to us as Ambassador of India intelligence, good humour, experience, and vision for international understanding….”

Palkhivala has received recognition from renowned academics. In the book Working a Democratic Constitution by the eminent Granville Austin, reference to Palkhivala occurs at sixteen pages.

Palkhivala has received citations and honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws from various universities such as Princeton University, New Jersey, and Lawrence University, Wisconsin, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu University and the University of Mumbai.

Palkhivala was ailing for a long time. It was painful to see that a person so eloquent and articulate was unable to speak or recognize persons except occasionally in a momentary flash. He answered the Inevitable Summons from his Maker on 11-12-2002. Earth received an honoured guest as Palkhivala was laid to rest.

Rajagopalachari rightly said of Palkhivala, “He is God’s gift to us”. Nani Palkhivala’s passing away has indeed left a dent in Indian humanity. Born of the sun he travelled a while towards the sun, and left the vivid air signed with his honour.

Department  of  Posts  commemorative postage stamp on 'Nani A. Palhivala' 

Issued  Date  16. 01.2004
Denomination: 500 Paise

Saint Ravidas 2001 India

Sri Guru Ravidas ji was born of humble parentage at Seer Govardhanapura in Kashi now known as Varanasi, around the 15th century. His parents Shri Santokh Das and Smt. Kalsi Devi were so struck by the divine effulgence of their child when he was born that they named him Ravidas after the Sun–God.Ravidas did not have any formal education. It is said that when his father tried to admit him in a ‘Pathshala’, the child Ravidas did not display any interest in his school lessons as even at that early age, *HE  UNDERSTOOD   THAT TRUE  MEANS  OF  SALVATION  IS  THROUGH  LOVE  OF  GOD  AND  THROUGH  BHAJAN*  and devotional worship. In his early life,

Ravidas was often found in deep meditation for hours together. Ravidas used to collect boys of his age and explained to them the various modes of adoring God.Ravidas inherited the profession of tanning and shoe-making from his father. But, he was content with making only one pair of shoes in a day. He never desired to make more money than was necessary to keep his body and soul together. Often he supplied new shoes free of cost to those who could not afford to pay for them.

Ravidas often spent his earnings in helping the poor and for feeding the sadhu  whom he respected as men of God. Once, when his father sent Ravidas with some shoes to be sold, Ravidas gave away the whole earnings. Such was his devotion to men of God and his compassion for the poor and needy. To divert his attention, his father got him married and settled him separately. Ravidas lived in a humble cottage but carried on his life of faith and devotion and continued his service to the men of God. Ravidas did not believe in idol-worship.

 He emphasised the search for Truth and Realisation of the oneness of God. “To recognise oneself is to reach the Almighty God“, this is what Ravidas preached all his life.His true devotion towards God was the great source of his success. He had to face many ordeals in life. He had to face the  challenge  of orthodox Hindu society which  forbade him to wear a sacred thread, or blow a conch shell during worship or to put on the holy marks on his forehead these being meant for only the high caste Hindus. Ravidas being a  ‘charmkar’ was even denied entry into temples. There are many legends about how Ravidas proved his worthiness and God-possessed  disposition. It is said that when he was brought before the court of Raja Nagar Mal, he cut his shoulder and showed the four sacred  threads that he wore in ‘Satya Yuga, ‘Dwapara Yuga‘, ‘Treta Yuga‘ and ‘Kali Yuga.’ This would not satisfy the orthodox Hindus. Ravidas again performed a miracle by making his ‘sila‘ (a stone used by chamars for making shoes) float on the surface of Ganges,  while  the idols of the pandits went down. Raja Nagar Mal admitted Ravidas’s greatness and became his disciple. He had further trouble when he went to the Ganga  at  Varanasi  at the place called Panch Ganga Ghat to perform the last rites of his parents, who both died the same day.

The public is stated to have objected to the waters of the Ganga reaching them after they were polluted by a chamar. It is said that the river changed its flow at the place to accommodate Ravidas.Mira Bai, the famous saint poetess, had great respect for him. It is said that even Sikandar Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi  was impressed by the teachings of Ravidas and honoured him with presents. Saint Ravi Das  composedmany shabdas. Out of them about 41 shabdas have been included in the Holy Guru Granth Sahib. His shabdas are packed with divine wisdom and in each of them, he advocates the ‘Ram naam jap‘ and extols the efficacy of this great mantra. In his teachings, he says, “God is everywhere – in you and me,” and insists, “it is time to worship God.” His philosophy was one of surrender to the Lord. He was fully convinced that in Kaliyuga, God’s name was the only remedy  for salvation.Saint Ravidas was a great reformer, a true lover of God and a preacher of saintly disposition, who emphasised the fundamental truth underlying all religions.

Born in most humble surroundings in a so-called low-caste family, he proved that “irrespective of caste and creed, all are equal in the eyes of God and only sinful actions bring bad name and dishonour to a man.” Though the orthodox society was pitched against him, he never swerved from the path of truth and propagated the love of God. He preached love of God and religious harmony as the only panacea for the survival of humanity.

Department of Posts  feels privileged to bring out a special commemorative  stamp in honour and memory of this great saint, and reformer, Sri Guru Ravi Das ji

Issued on 24/06/2001
Denomination 300 Paise

Friday, January 13, 2017

Happy Pongal 2006 India

India is a land of festivals and many of the great festivals are related to the traditional agricultural activities of its people. Pongal, one of the most important festivals, particularly of the Tamil people, is a thanksgiving ritualfor a bountiful harvest which is celebrated with great joy by one and all.

This festival follows a solar calendar and is celebrated on the same days each year. The actual festivities of Pongal begin on 13th  January and lasts for four days. From an astronomical standpoint, this is an important period because this is the time when the sun enters the Northern Hemisphere.

The sun traverses from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Tropic of Cancer via the Equator from 14thJanuary to 14th July, and this movement is termed as Uttarayan(summer solstice). The festival also marks the withdrawal of the North East Monsoons.

The first day of the Pongal festival is called Bhogi. The highlight of the day is the bonfire into which old items like rugs, mats, papers, clothes, etc. are consigned, marking the beginning of a new life.

The second day is ‘Pongal’, the most important day, when great importance is given to the Sun. Decorative motifs called ‘Kolams’ (Rangoli) are drawn on the floor by the women-folk, generally with rice flour. In the early morning, the family members gather outside their houses and cook sweet rice, known as ‘Pongal’, in clay pots. The overflowing pot is perceived as an auspicious sign of abundance and prosperity and excites the people to raise a chorus ‘Pongal O Pongal’. Specialities of the day include the venpongal (salty dish) and Chakkarai Pongal (dish made with jaggery). The celebration of ‘Makar Sankranti’ in other parts of India coincides with Pongal.

The third day is dedicated to cattle and is called Mattu Pongal. The cattle are gaily decorated with beads, bells and flowers – their horns painted and capped with gleaming metals. A cattle procession is taken out and people offer fruits and other goodies to the animals. However, in many places, the main attraction of this day is the bullfight (Jallikattu) in which young men participate with enthusiasm to show their skill and courage. The aim of the sport is to seize the reward, which is put in a cloth and tied to the horns of the bulls.

Kaanum Pongal is the fourth and final day of the festival. After so many days of merrymaking, people take things easy on this day. The spirit of sharing with all, animals and human alike, is embodied in the rituals associated with Kaanum Pongal.

Resembling the North Indian festival of Raksha Bandhan, when the sister ties a Rakhi on the wrist of the brother as a token of love and in return for protection, this day also celebrates the bond between siblings.In essence, the festivities of Pongal mark a reaffirmation of traditional values revolving around family and sharing.

The Department of Posts honours this great tradition and also shares in the happy festivities by issuing this commemorative stamp on Pongal.

Issued Date: 12.01.2006 
Denomination : 500 Paise

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Fakir Mohan Senapati 1993 India

Novelist, Short Story Writer, poet, philosopher, & Social Reformer. Fakir Mohan Senapati born on January 13, 1843, at Mallikeshpur in Balasore, played a leading role in establishing the distinct identity of Odia, a language mainly spoken in the Indian state of  Odisha. Fakirmohan Senapati is regarded as the father of Odia nationalism and modern Odia literature.

Born to Laxman Charan Senapati and Tulsi Devi Senapati, in a middle class Khandayatfamily, Fakirmohan dedicated his life to the progress of Odia language in the later 19th and early 20th century. The story of Fakirmohan is indeed the story of the 'Renaissance' of Odia literature. Though being born into a moderately poor family, however with his genius and literary skills, he was able to become an accomplished writer at a very young age, detailing the greatness and the ills present within the Odia Society. He was a social reformer and educator who used his pen to criticize and correct the aberrations prevalent in the society. *He is called the father of Odia fiction*. In his native place, school, colleges and universities are constructed in his memory like Fakir Mohan College and Fakir Mohan University.

He is aptly called the Thomas Hardy of Odisha. by Dr.Mayadhar Mansinha Though he translated from Sanskrit, wrote poetry, and attempted many forms of literature, he is now known primarily as the father of modern Odia prose fiction. The four novels of Fakirmohan, written between 1897 and 1915, reflect the socio-cultural conditions of Odisha during the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries. While the three novels, 'Chha maana Atha Guntha', 'Mamu' and 'Prayaschita' explore the realities of social life in its multiple dimensions, 'Lachhama' is a historical romance dealing with the anarchical conditions of Odisha in the wake of Maratha invasions during the eighteenth century. "Chha Maana Atha Guntha is the first Indian novel to deal with the exploitations of landless peasants by the feudal Lord." It was written much before the October revolution of Russia or much before the emerging of Marxist ideas in India. Fakir Mohan is also the writer of the first autobiography in Odia, "Atma Jeevan Charita" .

His “Rebati” (1898) is widely recognized as *the first Odia short story. “Rebati”* is the story of a young innocent girl whose desire for education is placed in the context of a conservative society in a backward Odisha village, which is hit by the killer epidemic cholera. His other stories are “Patent Medicine”,  “Daka Munshi”, ”Adharma Bitta” etc. "Randipua Ananta"  also a nice creation of him.

*He wrote a long poem, Utkala Bhramanam,* that first appeared in 1892. Literally meaning Tour of Odisha, this poem, in reality, is not a travelogue but a commentary on the state of affairs in the Odisha of that time, written in a satirical manner.

Vyasa Kabi Fakir Mohan Senapati played a major role towards the formation of Odisha and the acknowledgement of Odia language during the British period. Vyasa Kabi Fakir Mohan Senapati married Leelavati Devi in the year 1856 when he was only thirteen. She died when he was twenty-nine. In summer 1871, he again married to Krushna Kumari Dei about whom he says, It seemed as if God had sent me Krushna Kumari to relieve me of all my miseries and bring me happiness and prosperity. Krushna Kumari died in 1894 leaving behind a son and a daughter. His son's name was Moini Mohan Senapati.

14 - 06 -1918 at aged 75 Fakir Mohan Senapati last  his  breath  and  went  rest  in peace  but  his  sacrifice to  Odia language is unforgettable.

Department  of  Posts issued A commemorative postage stamp on the 150th Birth Anniversary of Fakir mohan Senapati 

Issued on Jan 14, 1993
Denomination : 100 Paise

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Swami Vivekananda 1963 India

In 1984, the Government of India declared and decided to observe the birthday of Swami Vivekanand (12 January, as a National Youth Day every year from 1985 onwards. To quote from the Government of India's communication, 'it was felt that the philosophy of Swamiji and the ideals for which he lived and worked could be a great source of inspiration for the Indian Youth

*Born as Narendranath Dutta on 12 January 1863, Swami Vivekananda is considered one of the chief saints of India.*

The prime disciple of 19th century Indian mystic Ramakrishna Paramhansa, he reintroduced the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world.

Naren (as he was popularly known as) was born at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in British Capital Calcutta.

Son of Vishwanath Dutta, who was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court and a devout housewife Bhubaneswari Devi, Naren's upbringing was influenced by his father's liberal thinking and his mother's spiritual and religious temperament.

Swami Vivekananda was intelligent since childhood. He was the only student to have received first division marks in Presidency College entrance examination. An avid reader of various subjects, including religion, history, social science, art and literature, he also had profound interest in Puranas, Vedas and Upanishads.

He travelled to the West bearing HIndu philosophy and introducing Indian heritage, culture and philosophy to the West. Of his many lectures, the one in Chicago at the Parliament of the World's Religion is the most revered. Here, he gave a brief speech representing India and Hinduism.

With his introductory speech, satrting "Sisters and brothers of America", Swami Vivekananda earned a 2-minute standing ovation from the crowd of seven thousand.

Swami Vivekananda attained Mahasamadhi on July 4, 1902. On this day, he woke up early, went to Belur Math and meditated there for three hours. After taking classes and discussing a planned Vedic college in Ramakrishna Math, he went to his room at 7 pm and asked not be disturbed.

He lost  is breath at 9:10 pm while meditating. Medically, a rupture of a blood vessel in his brain led to the death. His disciples believe that the rupture was due to brahmarandhra (an opening in the crown of his head) being pierced when he attained mahasamādhi.

He was cremated on a sandalwood pyre on the banks of Ganga in Belur

*Few  Quotations by Swami Vivekanada*

“Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success, that is way great spiritual giants are produced.”

“Never think there is anything impossible for the soul. It is the greatest heresy to think so. If there is sin, this is the only sin ? to say that you are weak, or others are weak.”

“We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far.”

“The world is the great gymnasium where we come to make ourselves strong.”

“You cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself.”

*Department  of  Posts  issued commemorative stamps  on his Birth centenary*

Date of Issue: 17. 01.1963
Denomination:15 Naya Paisa

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Naval Dockyard Bombay - 250th Anniversary 1986 India

The Naval Dockyard Bombay humble beginning was in 1736 from designing and building small crafts, it has developed into a mammoth organisation for repair of the most sophisticated Indian Naval Warships. The Dockyard has become a symbol of rapid progress and technological advancement from repair and building of wooden hulls in 1736 to the repair and servicing of the most sophisticated and advanced electronic gadgets of today. It is the most modern of the Naval Dockyards in South Asia today.

The dockyard commenced functioning on 11 January, 1736, on 120 acres of land sandwiched between the Gateway of India and the Ballard Pier at the entrance of the channel, a purely indigenous enterprise of the Wadia Brothers as a composite unit for designing and building of ships. However the Bombay and Duncan Docks were commissioned in 1758 and 1857, respectively.The Docks prided themselves for having built 170 war vessels for East India Company, 87 Merchant Ships and 34 War Ships for the Royal Navy, and won world acclaim for excellent workmanship of the vessels. It is nostalgic that the oldest ship afloat in the Royal Navy today ‘HMS Foudroyant 46 guns’, a 1065 tons frigate has been built and launched from these docks in October 1817. The docks changed its function from ship building to repairs with the take over by the British Navy from the Wadias.

Naval Dockyard, Mumbai is the premier ship repair yard of the Indian Navy. With a history of over 275 years, it is one of the largest of its kind in Asia. The yard is the frontliner in technology for repair of ships.

There are mentions about ship building activities at *the Naval Dockyard dating back to 1671. However, the foundations of the modern naval dockyard were established in 1735* Worried by the shortage of oak wood for building ships, the East India Company brought Lowjee Nauserwanjee Wadia, a master ship builder, from Surat to Mumbai in 1736 and assigned him the task of ship construction. He and the next seven generations of Wadia served as the Master Builders for the Company. They built more than 400 ships over a period of 150 years, using malabar teak. The ships made at Bombay Dockyard were among the finest in the world and sailed around the globe.

The pride of the warships built at Bombay Dockyard is HMS Trincomalee built in 1817. It is the world's second oldest ship afloat. The ship is now permanently berthed in Hartlepool in UK. With the advent of the industrial revolution and the introduction of steel as the primary ship-building material, the function of the dockyard changed in 1884 from ship-building to ship repair and maintenance for the Navy.

At present, the dockyard undertakes refit, maintenance and modernisation of ship and submarines of the Western Naval Command. There are more than 100 well-equipped work centres to cater to a range of machinery and equipment fitted on-board ships. The yard also maintains its own fleet of about 70 yard crafts to provide logistic support to warships in harbour. All the workshops and training centres are ISO 9000/2001 certified - a single largest certification of a group of workshops in South Asia.

The dockyard is spread over 138 acres of land overlooking the Gateway of India. It has over four kilometres of jetties and wharves. Specialised repair and testing facilities are available for a wide range of equipment such as diesel and gas turbines, steam propulsion machinery and auxiliaries, radial engines, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, electrical power systems, weapons, armament and electronics control systems.

The yard pays utmost attention to quality of work. All the work centres of the yard are certified for Quality Management Systems. At present, there are 102 Quality Circles in the dockyard. The yard has participated in national and international Quality Circle conventions.

Safety and environment are given prime importance in the dockyard. The personnel are regularly trained in safety aspects and resort to safe work practices in the demanding conditions onboard. The dockyard is the first among defence organisations to obtain ISO 14001 certification for environment management system in fourteen work centres. The yard also boasts of vermiculture project, rainwater harvesting and waste water recycling plants.

The Naval Civilian Housing Colony at Powai is a plastic-free green colony with model management and amenities. The yard has won numerous awards for its contribution to safety and environment management. In addition, the dockyard houses many heritage buildings among which Bombay Castle is prominent. The dockyard has won Urban Heritage Award from the Mumbai Heritage Society in 2001 for excellent maintenance of Heritage buildings.

The statue of the Unknown Worker installed at the entrance symbolises the recognition of the value that the Naval fleet places in the skills of the personnel as it pays tribute to the yeomen service of thousands of workers who have toiled all these years.

Department of Posts  issued A commemorative postage stamp on the 250th  Anniversary  of the Bombay Dockyard 

Issued  Date: 11.01.1986
Denomination : 250 Paise

Monday, January 9, 2017

Narhar Vishnu Gadgil 1985 India

A great nationalist and an astute parliamentarian, an educationist and organizer Narhar Vishnu Gadgil, affectionately called as Kakasaheb, was among those on the forefront of national liberation movement of India under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and one of a dozen leaders engaged to rebuild the nation after freedom.

Born on January 10, 1896 at Malhargarh, Central Province, Narhar Gadgil was the son of Radha and Vishnu Narayanrao Gadgil, belonging to a Chitpawan Brahmin family of Maharashtra. At the time of birth of Narhar his father Vishnu Gadgil was posted at Malhargarh as a railway employee. Due to the sudden demise of his wife Vishnu Gadgil himself took care of primary education of Narhar at Malhargarh. However, in 1909 he could manage for Vishnu to study at Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya of Pune. Later he studied at Ferguson College and the Law College of Pune and after obtaining a Graduate Degree in Law from the Law College of Bombay he finally started practicing in Pune.

The city of Pune was the Karmabhoomi of Lokmanya Tilak, thus the main centre of activities relating to freedom movement of India. Narhar Gadgil, who during studies had filled nationalism and patriotism in him, couldn’t remain unaffected of those activities. Hence, in 1915 he besides meeting Mahatma Gandhi at Pune Railway Station also participated in the Congress Session held in Bombay. 

After the death of Lokmanya Tilak, at the call of the Mahatma he jumped into national liberation movement on August 1, 1920 and soon became one of the staunch followers of Gandhi. His trust in the Mahatma could be observed from a portion of the confidential report sent in 1930 by the Intelligence Department of Bombay State to the Secretary for the Department of Home, India in which it was mentioned, “He [Gadgil] is not ready to listen to anyone except the Mahatma …”      

 On the strength of his organizational abilities and tireless efforts in connecting people to freedom movement Gadgil emerged a national leader in a short span of time. Along with becoming a member of the AICC and the CWC he was many times elected as the President of Maharashtra Prantik Congress Committee between 1922 and 1947. The credit goes to Gadgil to connect known people from the Backward Communities to organization and freedom movement. The name of Keshavrao Jedhe can especially be mentioned here in this context.

Kakasaheb Gadgil was a prominent leader of Civil Disobedience Movement [1930], Individual Satyagraha [1940] and Quit India Movement [1942]. Due to his nationalistic activities he was arrested six times during 1930-32, which itself was a record of the history of freedom movement, and is still a source of inspiration for nationalists and patriots.    

He was an astute parliamentarian and noted for his radical views in Parliament [1934-57]. There he became the stoutest champion of progressive causes. He was an able administrator also. As a member of the first Cabinet of independent India [1947-52] he took initiatives for so many known national power-projects including Bhakra-Nangal [Punjab], Hirakund [Orissa], Rihand [U.P.] and Kakarapara [Gujarat]. He played an important role in construction and reconstruction of many national high ways and diplomatic enclaves like Chanakyapuri in New Delhi. Moreover, as a Governor of undivided Punjab [1958-62] he significantly contributed for the maturity of democratic institutions.

Kakasaheb Gadgil was an eminent writer and scholar.  He authored so many books in Marathi and English languages. His services for Hindi and Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti and the Marathi Sahitya Sabha, along with his contribution to the development of the Indian Institute of Public Administration and the Indian Council of World Affairs will be remembered for a long.

Kakasaheb Gadgil left for his heavenly abode on January 12, 1966 in Pune.    

Department of Posts  is privileged to issue a commemorative postage stamp in honour of Narhar Vishnu Gadgil, a prominent national leader. and veteran freedom fighter.

Issued  Date :10. 01.1985
Denomination : 50 paise