Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee 1969 India Stamp

Rembering the Author of Vande Mataram, the national song of India Bankim Chandra Chatterjee also known as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was one of the greatest novelists and poets of India. He is famous as author of Vande Mataram, the national song of India. 

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was born on June 27, 1838 in the village Kantalpara of the 24 Paraganas District of Bengal. He belonged to a family of Brahmins. The word 'Bankim Chandra' in Bengali means 'the moon on the second day of the bright fortnight'. Bankim Chandra's father Yadav Chandra Chattopadhyaya was in government service.

After his birth he was posted to Midnapur as Deputy Collector. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee had his early education in Midnapur. He was a brilliant student. After his early education in Midnapur Bankim Chandra Chatterji joined the Mohsin College at Hoogly and studied there for six years. Apart from his textbooks, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, used to read other books in his leisure time.

He was very much interested in the study of Sanskrit. His study of Sanskrit stood him in good stead. Later, when he wrote books in Bengali his knowledge of Sanskrit helped him immensely. 

In 1856, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee joined the Presidency College in Calcutta. In 1857, there was a strong revolt against the rule of East India Company but Bankim Chandra Chatterjee continued his studies and passed his B.A. Examination in 1859. The Lieutenant Governor of Calcutta appointed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee as Deputy Collector in the same year.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was in Government service for thirty-two years and retired in 1891. He was a very conscientious worker.

 Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was married when he was only eleven . At that time his wife was only five years old. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was only twenty two when his wife died. After some time he married again. His second wife was Rajlakshmi Devi. They had three daughters but no son. 

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee began his literary career as a writer of verse. He then turned to fiction. Durgeshnandini, his first Bengali romance, was published in 1865.

*Bankim Chandra Chatterjee most famous novel was Anand Math (1882). Anand Math contained the song "Bande Mataram", which was later adopted as National Song.*

 Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wanted to bring about a cultural revival of Bengal by stimulating the intellect of the Bengali speaking people through literary campaign. With this end in view he brought out monthly magazine called Bangadarshan in 1872. 

Bankim Chatterjee was superb story-teller, and a master of romance. No Bengali writer before or since has enjoyed such spontaneous and universal popularity as Chatterjee. His novels have been translated in almost all the major languages of India. *He breathed his last  on April 8, 1894 at age  55*

Department of Posts  released a commemorative postage stamp In memory of this great writer and patriot  Bankim Chatterjee ji

Issued Date : 01/01/1969
Denomination : 20 Paise

Vande Mataram 🇮🇳

SAIL 50th years celebration 2009 India Stamp

Bokaro Steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public Sector - started taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the Soviet Union. It was originally incorporated as a limited company on 29th January 1964, and was later merged with SAIL, first as a susidiary and then as a unit, through the Public Sector Iron & Steel Companies (Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978. *The construction work started on 6th April 1968.*

The Plant is hailed as the country’s first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in terms of equipment, material and know-how. Its first Blast Furnace started on 2nd October 1972 and the first phase of 1.7 MT ingot steel was completed on 26th February 1978 with the commissioning of the third Blast Furnace. All units of 4 MT stage have already been commissioned and the 90s' modernisation has further upgraded this to 4.5 MT of liquid steel.

The new features added in modernisation of SMS-II include two twin-strand slab casters along with a Steel Refining Unit. The Steel Refining Unit was inaugurated on 19th September, 1997 and the Continuous Casting Machine on 25th April, 1998. The modernisation of the Hot Strip Mill saw addition of new features like high pressure de-scalers, work roll bending, hydraulic automatic gauge control, quick work roll change, laminar cooling etc. New walking beam reheating furnaces are replacing the less efficient pusher type furnaces.

A new hydraulic coiler has been added and two of the existing ones revamped. With the completion of Hot Strip Mill modernisation, Bokaro is producing top quality hot rolled products that are well accepted in the global market.

Bokaro is designed to produce flat products like Hot Rolled Coils, Hot Rolled Plates, Hot Rolled Sheets, Cold Rolled Coils, Cold Rolled Sheets, Tin Mill Black Plates (TMBP) and Galvanised Plain and Corrugated (GP/GC) Sheets. Bokaro has provided a strong raw material base for a variety of modern engineering industries including automobile, pipe and tube, LPG cylinder, barrel and drum producing industries.

Bokaro Steel values its people as the fulcrum of all organisational activities. The saga of Bokaro Steel is the story of Bokaroans erecting a gigantic plant in the wilderness of Chhotanagpur, reaching milestones one after another, staving off stiff challenges in the liberalised era, modernising its facilities and innovating their way to the top of the heap.

Bokaro Steel is working towards becoming a one-stop-shop for world-class flat steel in India. The modernisation plans are aimed at increasing the liquid steel production capacity, coupled with fresh rolling and coating facilities. The new facilities will be capable of producing the most premium grades required by the most discerning customer segments.

Brand Bokaro will signify assured quality and delivery, offering value for money to the customers.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp during SAIL 50th years celebration

Issued Date : 03-02-2009 Denomination  : 500 Paise

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Jagjivan Ram 1991 India Stamp

Jagjivan Ram, popularly known as Babuji was a national leader, a freedom fighter, a crusader of social justice, a champion of depressed classes, an outstanding Parliamentarian, a true democrat, a distinguished Union Minister, an able administrator and an exceptionally gifted orator.

He had a towering personality and played a long inning, spanning over half a century in Indian politics with commitment, dedication and devotion.

Jagjivan Ram was born in a small village, Chandwa in Shahabad District, now Bhojpur, in Bihar on 5 April 1908 to Shobhi Ram and Vasanti Devi. Jagjivan Ram imbibed his idealism, humanitarian values and resilience from his father, who was of a religious disposition and the Mahant of the Shiv Narayani Sect. He was still in school when his father passed away leaving young Jagjivan in the care of his mother. Under his mother's guidance, Jagjivan Ram passed his Matriculation in first division from Arrah Town School. Despite facing caste based discrimination, Jagjivan Ram successfully completed the Inter Science Examination from the Banaras Hindu University and later graduated from the Calcutta University.

Jagjivan Ram had organized a number of Ravidas Sammelans and had celebrated Guru Ravidas Jayanti in different areas of Calcutta (Kolkata). In 1934, he founded the Akhil Bhartiya Ravidas Mahasabha in Calcutta and the All India Depressed Classes League. Through these Organizations he involved the depressed classes in the freedom struggle. He was of the view that Dalit leaders should not only fight for social reforms but, also demand political representation.

on 19 October 1935, Babuji appeared before the Hammond Commission at Ranchi and demanded, for the first time, voting rights for the Dalits.

Babu Jagjivan Ram played a very active and crucial role in the freedom struggle. Inspired by Gandhiji, Babuji courted arrest on 10 December 1940.

After his release, he entrenched himself deeply into the Civil Disobedience Movement and Satyagraha. Babuji was arrested again on 19 August 1942 for his active participation in the Quit India Movement launched by the Indian National Congress.

Babuji had a long and distinguished political career of over five decades. Starting his public life as a student activist and freedom fighter, he went on to become a Legislator at the young age of 28 in the year 1936 as a nominated member of the Bihar Legislative Council.

He was a member of the All India Congress Committee from 1940 to 1977 and was in the Congress Working Committee from 1948 to 1977. He was in the Central Parliamentary Board from 1950 to 1977. Due to his astute political acumen, he was dear to stalwarts like Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Smt. Indira Gandhi.

Babu Jagjivan Ram had the unique distinction of serving as a Member of the Central Legislature uninterruptedly for over four decades. Till his last breath, he was a sitting member of the Lok Sabha- his Eighth term- consecutively since the First General Election. Babuji has had the distinction of being the longest-serving Minister in the Government of India. Jagjivan Ram was known for his apt handling of Parliamentary business. His oratory skill was well-acknowledged and admired in Parliament. As a Union Minister, he introduced numerous Bills in the Lok Sabha and piloted their passage in Parliament.

In post-independent India, Babuji's contribution to nation-building has left an indelible mark. He was the Minister of Labour during 1946-52, a portfolio he held again in 1966-67. Besides the Labour Ministry, the other Ministries he held were Communications (1952-56), Railways (1956-62), Transport and Communications (1962-63), Food and Agriculture (1967-70), Defence (1970-74), and Agriculture and Irrigation (1974-77). When the Janata Party Government, headed by Morarji Desai was formed in 1977, Jagjivan Ram joined it as a Cabinet Minister, holding the Defence portfolio. He also became the Deputy Prime Minister and held the Defence portfolio from 24 January 1979 to 28 July 1979.

As Labour Minister, he introduced time-tested policies and laws for labour welfare. He was instrumental in enacting some of the landmark legislations for labour, viz. the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Indian Trade Union (Amendment) Act, 1960; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, etc. He laid the foundation of social security by way of enacting two important Acts, namely, the Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 and the Provident Fund Act, 1952. 

Babu Jagjivan Ram symbolized the dawn of a new era of assertion, equality and empowerment for the depressed classes. As a member of the Constituent Assembly, he played an active role in formulating the provision for State intervention for the advancement of socially backward classes by way of reservation in public employment and reservation of seats in legislatures for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. He was instrumental in the making of the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. For his unwavering support and relentless struggle for the cause of the downtrodden, he has been rightly called the 'Messiah of Dalits'.

Leaving behind the message of equality, Babuji breathed his last on 6 July 1986 at New Delhi. As a national leader who shared his political career with many generations, from Mahatma Gandhi to Rajiv Gandhi, he has left the legacy of a sincere and dedicated political leader, a committed public servant, freedom fighter, social reformist, revolutionary and true humanist.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on

Issued Date :05.04.1991
Denomination :100 Paise

Kambar 1966 India Stamp

Wishes  it's  readers  *Happy  Ramanavami* today  coincidence  we  need  to  write  on Kambar the author of the Ramavataram, popularly known as *Kambaramayanam*

Kambar (Kamban in casual address) 12th - Century poet  born in Tiruvaluntur, Tanjore district was a medieval  Tamil poet and the author of the Ramavataram, popularly known as *Kambaramayanam*, the Tamil version of Ramayana. Kambar also authored  few  other literary works in Tamil, such as 'Thirukkai Vazakkam',  and 'Sarasvati Anthati.'  etc.

Kambar belonged to the uvachchar caste, traditionally priests in southern India.However, he was brought up in the household of a wealthy farmer named Sadaiyepa Vallal in Vennai Nellur in Tamil Nadu. The Chola king—having heard of this talented bard—summoned him to his court and honoured him with the title Kavi Chakravarty (The Emperor of Poets).

Kamban flourished in Therazhundur, a village in the culturally rich Thanjavur District in the modern state of Tamil Nadu in South India. Kamban was a great scholar of India's two ancient and rich languages; Sanskrit and Tamil.

The original version of Ramayana was written by Valmiki. It is an epic of 24,000 verses which depicts the journey of Rama, a prince of Ayodhya who belonged to  Raghuvamsa (Solar dynasty). In  Hinduism,  Rama is the seventh incarnation of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti (the Hindu holy trinity which includes Brahma  and Shiva).

The Ramavataram or Kamba Ramayanam of Kamban is an epic of about 11,000 stanzas, as opposed to Valmiki's 24000 couplets. The Rama-avataram or Rama-kathai as it was originally called was accepted into the holy precincts in the presence of Vaishnava Acharya Nathamuni.

Kamba Ramayana is not a verbal translation of the Sanskrit epic by Valmiki, but a retelling of the story of Lord Rama.

Legend has it that the entire episode was written in one night by Lord Ganesh. Ganesha is said to have written the poems that Kambar dictated to him during the night, as Kambar procrastinated the work till the day before the deadline set by the King.

Many Tamil poets, statesmen, kings, and common people have praised Kambar for his Kambaramayanam, which has more than 10,000 songs and more than 45,000 lines, forming one of the greatest epics of Tamil.

"Kamba Sutram" is a phrase used by Tamil people in their day-to-day activity. It was actually originally "Kamba Chithiram", only denoting Kamban's art. However, over period of time it rendered as "Kamba Sutram". The phrase is used just like "rocket science", which clearly denotes that skills of Kambar in writing poem with viruthapa is as difficult as "rocket science".

Kamba Ramayana was first delivered in Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple,  Srirangam at the court hall (Kambar Arangetra Mandapam) near Thaayar sannithi. The Swami applauded by laughing out aloud from his Sanctum Sanctora (Mettu Narasimhar Sannidhi), and this was taken as proof of approval.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Kambar

Issued Date 05. 04.1966
Denomination: 15 Paise

Kundan Lal Saigal 1995 India Stamp

Kundan Lal Saigal is a legendary actor and singer of Indian cinema. This actor-singer contributed immensely to frame the future of Indian cinema. Being the first superstar of Indian film industry, his charisma and appeal is unparalleled in the industry.

Kundan Lal Saigal was born in Jammu & Kashmir on April 4, 1904. His father Amar Chand worked as a tehsildar at the court of the Raja of Jammu & Kashmir. Saigal's mother Kesar Bai was an extremely religious woman and was very fond of music. He dropped school and worked first as a railway time-keeper and later used to sell typewriters. 

Kundan Lal Saigal got formal training in music by a Sufi peer, Salman Yussuf. The singing tradition he followed was not strictly classical but an amalgamation of the musical forms of Thumri and Ghazal. In 1930, he was engaged by B.N. Sircar at New Theatres and his style was considerably followed by his contemporaries like R.C. Boral, Pankaj Mullick and Timir Baran. Saigal had performed in 29 Hindi films and seven Bengali films,150 film songs and 110 non-film songs are sung by him. 

His debut film was Mohabbat ke Aansoo (1932) but he became famous with Chandidas in 1934. The next movie Devdaas made him a megastar, he played the title role and made the character of the tragic hero come alive. The songs 'Balam Aaye Baso Mere Man Mein' and 'Dukh ke Din Ab Beete Nahin' sung by Kundanlal Saigal were mega hits. 

In 1940, Saigal travelled to Bombay and acted in renowned films like Bhakta Surdas, Tansen, Kurukshetra, Omar Khayyam, Tadbeer, Shahjahan, Yahoodi Ki Ladki ,Rooplekha, Crorepati, Karwan-e-Hayat, Dharti Mata, President, Pujarin, Dushman, Lagan, My sister
Zindagi, Street Singer and Parwana.

Some of the famous songs sung by him are Diya Jalao Jagmag Jagmag, Rumjhum Rumjhum Chaal Tihari, Baag Laga Doon Sajani, Chah Barbaad Karegi, Ai Dil-e-beqarar Jhoom, Gham Diye Mustaqil, Naina Matwaare Tihaare, Main Kya Jaanoo Kya Jaadu Hai, Preet Me Hai Jeevan Jokhon, Ek Bangla Banay Nyara, Tarpat Beete Din Raen, Jab Dil Hi Toot Gaya, Soja Rajkumari and the memorable Babul Mora. In the film Street Singer, Saigal acted and sung Babul Mora live in front of the camera. Indian film industry lost this legendary figure on January18, 1947, due to his alcohol addiction. 

Department of Posts honoured the  legendary by releasing commemorative postage stamp

Issued Date:.04.04.1995
Denomination : 500 Paise

Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw 2008 India Stamp

Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw, MC (3 April 1914 – 27 June 2008), popularly known as Sam Bahadur ("Sam the Brave"), was the Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and was subsequently the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal. His distinguished military career spanned four decades and five wars, beginning with service in the British Indian Army in World War II.
Though Manekshaw initially thought of pursuing a career as a medical doctor, he later joined the first intake of the Indian Military Academy (IMA) when it was established in 1932. Right from his days at IMA, he proved to be witty and humorous in nature. He was first attached to the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Scots, and later posted to the 4th Battalion of the 12th Frontier Force Regiment, commonly known as the 54th Sikhs. During action in World War II, he was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry. Following the partition of India in 1947, he was reassigned to the 16th Punjab Regiment. Manekshaw was seconded to a planning role during the 1947 Indo-Pakistani War and the Hyderabad crisis, and as a result he never commanded an infantry battalion. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier while serving at the Military Operations Directorate.
Manekshaw rose to become the 8th Chief of Army Staff in 1969, after commanding troops at both division, corps and regional command levels. Under his command, Indian forces conducted victorious campaigns against Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 that led to the creation of Bangladesh in December 1971. For his services, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan, the second and third highest civilian awards of India.

Manekshaw was born on 3 April 1914 in Amritsar, Punjab to Parsi parents, Hormusji Manekshaw, a doctor, and his wife Hilla, who had moved there from the city of Valsad in the coastal Gujarat region. His father served in the British Indian Army as a captain in the Army Medical Corps and also participated in World War I. His parents had six children; Sam was the fifth. Fali, Cilla, Jan, and Sehroo preceded him. He was followed by Jemi, who later joined the Royal Indian Air Force as a doctor, and was the first Indian to be awarded the air surgeon's wings from the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, United States.
After completing his schooling in Punjab and at the Sherwood College, Nainital, he achieved a distinction in the School Certificate of the Cambridge Board, an English language curriculum developed by the University of Cambridge International Examinations, at the age of 15. He asked his father to send him to London to become a gynaecologist. But his father refused, stating that he was not old enough.
In the meantime, the Indian Military College Committee which was set up in 1931, and chaired by Field Marshal Sir Philip Chetwode, recommended the establishment of a military training academy in India to train Indians for commissioning into the army. A three-year course was proposed with an entry age of 18 to 20 years. Candidates would be selected on the basis of an examination conducted by the Public Service Commission. After the approval of the committee's recommendation, a formal notification for entrance examination to enrol in the Indian Military Academy (IMA) was issued in the early months of 1932 with the examination to be conducted in the months of June or July. In an act of rebellion against his father's refusal, Manekshaw took the examination for enrolment in the academy, and was one of the fifteen cadets to be selected through open competition. He stood sixth in the order of merit.

Manekshaw was selected as part of the first batch of cadets to attend IMA. Called "The Pioneers", his class produced three future chiefs—Manekshaw (India), Smith Dun (Burma) and Muhammad Musa (Pakistan). Although the academy was formally inaugurated by Chetwode on 10 December 1932, the cadets' formal military training commenced on 1 October 1932. Manekshaw proved to be witty during his stay at IMA and achieved many firsts. He was the first of the alumni to join the Gorkha Regiment, and later the first to serve as the Chief of the Army Staff of India and attain the rank of field marshal. Of the 40 cadets inducted, only 22 were able to complete the course and were commissioned as second lieutenants on 1 February 1935 with their anté-date seniority fixed as 4 February 1934.
On commissioning, as was the practice at that time, Manekshaw was first attached to the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Scots, a British battalion, stationed at Lahore. He was later posted to the 4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment, commonly known as the 54th Sikhs, stationed in Burma.
During World War II, then-Captain Manekshaw saw action in Burma in the 1942 campaign at the Sittang River with the 4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment, and had the rare distinction of being honoured for his bravery on the battlefield itself. During the fighting around Pagoda Hill, a key position on the left of the Sittang bridgehead, he led his company in a counter-attack against the invading Japanese Army and despite suffering 50% casualties it managed to achieve its objective. After capturing the hill, Manekshaw was hit by a burst of light machine gun fire and was severely wounded in the stomach. Observing the battle, Major General David Cowan, commander of the 17th Infantry Division, spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and, having witnessed his valour in the face of stiff resistance, rushed over to him. Fearing that Manekshaw would die, the general pinned his own Military Cross ribbon on him saying, "A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross." The official recommendation for the MC states that the success of the attack "was largely due to the excellent leadership and bearing of Captain Manekshaw." This award was made official with the publication of the notification in a supplement to the London Gazette on 21 April 1942 (dated 23 April 1942).
Manekshaw was evacuated from the battlefield by Sher Singh, his orderly, who took him to an Australian surgeon from the medical team. The surgeon initially declined to treat Manekshaw, saying that he was badly wounded and his chances of survival were very low. But Singh forced him to treat Manekshaw. Meanwhile, Manekshaw regained consciousness, and when the surgeon asked what had happened to him, he replied that he was "kicked by a mule." Impressed by Manekshaw's sense of humour, he treated him, and removed seven bullets from his lungs, liver, and kidneys. Much of his intestines were removed and stitched. Over Manekshaw's protests that he treat the other patients, the regimental medical officer, Captain G. M. Diwan, attended to him.
Having recovered from his wounds, Manekshaw attended the 8th Staff Course at Command and Staff College, at Quetta, from 23 August to 22 December 1943. He was then posted as the brigade major of the Razmak Brigade, stationed in Burma, serving in that post until 22 October 1944 when he was sent to join the 9th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment, as part of General William Slim's 14th Army. Towards the end of World War II, after the Japanese surrender, Manekshaw was appointed to supervise the disarmament of over 60,000 Japanese prisoners of war (POWs). He dealt this in the way that no cases of indiscipline or escape attempts from the camp were reported. He then went on a six-month lecture tour to Australia in 1946, and after his return was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, serving as a Grade 1 General Staff Officer (GSO1) in the Military Operations (MO) Directorate.
Upon the Partition of India in 1947, his parent unit—the 4th Battalion of the 12th Frontier Force Regiment—became part of the Pakistan Army, so Manekshaw was reassigned to the 16th Punjab Regiment. While handling the issues relating to Partition in 1947, Manekshaw demonstrated his sound planning and administrative skills in his capacity as GSO1. At the end of 1947, Manekshaw was posted as the commanding officer of the 3rd Battalion of the 5th Gorkha Rifles. But before he moved on to his new appointment, on 22 October, Pakistani forces infiltrated Kashmir, capturing Domel and Muzaffarabad. The following day, the ruler of the princely state of Jammu & Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, appealed for India to send troops. But the Indian government replied that they would send troops only if Jammu and Kashmir acceded and became part of India. On 25 October, V. P. Menon, then-political advisor to the Viceroy of India, along with Manekshaw flew to Srinagar, with the Instrument of Accession. While Menon was with the Maharaja, Manekshaw carried out an aerial survey of the situation in Kashmir. After the Maharaja had signed the document, they flew back to Delhi the same night. Soon a briefing was held with Lord Mountbatten, and Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, where Manekshaw suggested immediate deployments of troops to save Kashmir from being captured.
Though Nehru was not in favour of the deployment of troops initially, he was persuaded by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the deputy prime minister. On the morning of 27 October, Indian troops were sent to Kashmir, and Srinagar was saved just before Pakistani raiders reached the city's outskirts. Maneskhaw's posting order as the commander of the 3rd Battalion of the 5th Gorkha Rifles was cancelled, and he was subsequently posted to the MO Directorate. As a consequence of the Kashmir dispute and the annexation of Hyderabad—code named "Operation Polo", which was also planned by the MO Directorate—Manekshaw never commanded a battalion. During his term at the MO Directorate, he was promoted to colonel, then brigadier when he was appointed as the first Indian Director of Military Operations. This appointment was later upgraded to major general and later to lieutenant general and is now termed Director General Military Operations (DGMO).
In April 1952, Maneshaw was appointed the commander of the 167th Infantry Brigade, headquartered at Firozpur. After this, he was appointed the Director of Military Training at Army Headquarters in April 1954. But he was soon posted as commandant of the Infantry School at Mhow, and also became the colonel of both 8 Gorkha Rifles and 61st Cavalry. 8 Gorkha Rifles became his new regiment, since his original parent regiment, the 12th Frontier Force Regiment, had become part of the new Pakistan Army at partition. During his tenure as the commandant of the Infantry School, he discovered that the training manuals were outdated, and was instrumental in revamping the manuals to be consistent with the tactics employed by the Indian Army.
In 1957, he was sent to the Imperial Defence College to attend a higher command course for one year. On his return, he was appointed the General Officer Commanding (GOC), 26th Infantry Division. While he commanded the division, General K. S. Thimayya was the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), and Krishna Menon, the defence minister. During Menon's visit to Manekshaw's division, he asked him what he thought of his chief. Manekshaw replied that it was not appropriate for him to think of his chief in that way, and told Menon not to ask anybody again. This annoyed Menon and he told Manekshaw that if he wanted to, he could sack Thimayya, to which Manekshaw replied, "You can get rid of him. But then I will get another." This heated conversation with Menon later proved to be a thorn in his career.
In December 1959, Manekshaw was appointed the commandant of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington. Soon, he was in middle of an unwanted controversy that almost ended his career. In May 1961, Thimayya resigned as the COAS, and was succeeded by General Pran Nath Thapar. Earlier in the year, Major General Brij Mohan Kaul was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed as the Quarter Master General (QMG) by Defence Minister Menon against the recommendation of Thimayya. This incident had led to Thimayya's resignation. Within no time, Kaul was made the Chief of General Staff (CGS), the second highest appointment at Army Headquarters after the COAS. Kaul soon became close to Nehru and Menon, and even more powerful than the chief himself. This was not liked by senior army officials, including Manekshaw. He made a few derogatory comments on the political leadership, which led him to be marked as an anti-national.
Kaul sent informers to spy on Manekshaw and based on the information gained, Manekshaw was charged and a court of inquiry was ordered. Meanwhile, two of his juniors—Harbaksh Singh and Moti Sagar—were promoted to lieutenant general and appointed as corps commanders. This incident resulted in the widespread implication that Manekshaw had almost been dismissed from the service. The court, presided over by the then-GOC-in-C Western Command, Lieutenant General Daulet Singh, known for his integrity, exonerated Manekshaw. Before a formal 'no case to answer' could be announced, war with China broke out. But due to the court proceedings, Manekshaw did not see any action during the war. During this war, the Indian Army faced a debacle, and many knew that Kaul and Menon were primarily responsible for the failure. Both were sacked immediately. In November 1962, Nehru asked Manekshaw to take over the command of IV Corps. Manekshaw told Nehru that the action against him was a conspiracy, and that his promotion had been due for almost eighteen months. Nehru apologized, promoted Manekshaw to lieutenant general, and he moved to Tezpur to take over as the GOC IV Corps.
Soon after taking charge, Manekshaw reached the conclusion that poor leadership had been a significant factor in IV Corps' failure in the war with China. He felt that his foremost responsibility was to improve the morale of his demoralized soldiers, and issued orders to advance to the positions lost in the war, which kept morale up. Just five days into his command, Nehru visited the headquarters with his daughter Indira Gandhi and the COAS, and found the troops advancing. Nehru stated that he did not want any more men to die. The COAS assured him that he would get the orders rescinded. Manekshaw retorted that the COAS should allow him to command his troops the way he wished or send him to a staff appointment. Gandhi intervened and told Manekshaw to go ahead. Though Gandhi had no official position, she had great influence in the government. The next task Manekshaw took-up was to reorganize the troops in North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA). He took measures to overcome the shortages of equipment, accommodation, and clothing.
A year later, Manekshaw was promoted to the position of army commander and took over Western Command. In 1964, he moved from Shimla to Calcutta as the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command.[25][27] As GOC-in-C Eastern Command, he successfully responded to an insurgency in Nagaland for which he was later awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1968.
The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) General P. P. Kumaramangalam was due to retire in June 1969. Though Manekshaw was the most senior commander in army, Defence Minister Sardar Swaran Singh was in favour of Lieutenant General Harbaksh Singh, who had played a key role as the GOC-in-C of Western Command during the 1965 Indo-Pakistani war. Despite this, Manekshaw was appointed as the 8th Chief of the Army Staff on 8 June 1969. As the Chief of the Army Staff, he developed the Indian Army into an efficient instrument of war. During his tenure as COAS, he was instrumental in stopping the implementation of reservations for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the army. Though he was Parsi, a minority group in India, Mankeshaw felt that implementing reservations would compromise the ethos of the army; he also felt all must be given an equal chance.
The Indo-Pakistani conflict was sparked by the Bangladesh Liberation war, a conflict between the traditionally dominant West Pakistanis and the majority East Pakistanis. In 1970, East Pakistanis demanded autonomy for the state, but the Pakistani government failed to satisfy these demands and, in early 1971, a demand for secession took form in East Pakistan. In March, Pakistan Armed Forces launched a fierce campaign to curb the secessionists, including the soldiers and police from East Pakistan. Thousands of East Pakistanis died, and nearly ten million refugees fled to West Bengal, an adjacent Indian state. In April, India decided to assist in the formation of the new nation of Bangladesh.
During a cabinet meeting towards the end of April, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi asked Manekshaw if he was prepared to go to war with Pakistan. In response, Manekshaw told her most of his armoured and infantry divisions were deployed elsewhere, only 12 of his tanks were combat-ready, and they would be competing for rail carriages with the grain harvest at that point of time. He also pointed out the Himalayan passes would soon open up, with the forthcoming monsoon in East Pakistan, which would result in heavy flooding. When Gandhi asked the cabinet to leave the room and Manekshaw to stay, he offered to resign. She declined to accept it, but sought his advice. He then said he could guarantee victory if she would allow him to prepare for the conflict on his terms, and set a date for it, and Gandhi agreed.
Following the strategy planned by Manekshaw, the army launched several preparatory operations in East Pakistan including training and equipping the Mukti Bahini (a local group of Bengali nationalists). About three brigades of regular Bangladesh troops were trained. As an additional measure, 75,000 guerrillas were trained and equipped with arms and ammunition. These forces were used to sporadically harass the Pakistani Army stationed in East Pakistan in the lead up to the war.
The war started officially on 3 December 1971, when Pakistani aircraft bombed Indian Air Force bases in the western part of the country. The Army Headquarters, under the leadership Manekshaw, formulated a strategy as follows: the II Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Tapishwar Narain Raina (later General, and COAS), was to enter from the west; the IV Corps, commanded Lieutenant General Sagat Singh, was to enter from the west; the XXXIII Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Mohan L. Thapan was enter to from the west; additionally the 101 Communication Zone Area, commanded by Major General Gurbax Singh, was to provide support from the northeast. This strategy was to be executed by the Eastern Command, under Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora. Manekshaw instructed Lieutenant General J. F. R. Jacob, chief of staff Eastern Command, to inform the Indian prime minister that orders were being issued for the movement of troops from Eastern Command. The following day, the navy and the air force also initiated full-scale operations on both eastern and western fronts.
As the war progressed, Pakistan's resistance crumbled. India captured most of the advantageous positions and isolated the Pakistani forces. Suddenly, the Pakistanis started to surrender or withdraw. The UN Security Council assembled on 4 December 1971 to discuss the hostilities in South Asia. After lengthy discussions on 7 December, the United States made a resolution for "immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of troops." While supported by the majority, the USSR vetoed the resolution twice. In light of the Pakistani atrocities against Bengalis, the United Kingdom and France abstained on the resolution.
Using radio messages Manekshaw addressed the Pakistani troops three times on the subject of surrender, assuring them that they would receive honourable treatment from the Indian troops. They were broadcast on 9, 11 and 15 December. The last two messages were delivered as replies to the messages from Major General Rao Farman Ali and Lieutenant General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi. These messages from the Pakistani commanders to their troops were to have a devastating effect on their side, subsequently leading to their defeat. They convinced the troops of the pointlessness of further resistance.
On 11 December, Ali messaged the United Nations requesting a cease-fire, but it was not authorized by the President Yahya Khan and the fighting continued. Following several discussions and consultations, and subsequent attacks by the Indian forces, Khan decided to stop the war in order to save the lives of Pakistani soldiers. The actual decision to surrender was taken by Niazi on 15 December and was conveyed to Manekshaw through the United States Consul General in Dhaka (then Dacca) via Washington. But Manekshaw replied that he would stop the war only if the Pakistani troops surrendered to their Indian counterparts by 9:00 a.m. on 16 December. Later the deadline was extended to 3:00 p.m. of the same day at Niazi's request. The Instrument of Surrender was formally signed on 16 December 1971.
When the prime minister asked Manekshaw to go to Dhaka and accept the surrender of Pakistani forces, he declined, saying that the honour should go to the Indian Army Commander in the East, Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora. Concerned about maintaining discipline in the aftermath of the conflict, Manekshaw issued strict instructions forbidding looting and rape. He stressed the need to respect and stay away from women wherever he went. As a result, according to Singh, cases of looting and rape were negligible. In addressing his troops on the matter, Manekshaw was quoted as saying: "When you see a Begum (Muslim woman), keep your hands in your pockets, and think of Sam."
The war, lasting under a fortnight, saw more than 90,000 Pakistani soldiers taken as prisoners of war (POWs), and it ended with the unconditional surrender of Pakistan's eastern half, resulting in the birth of Bangladesh as a new nation. Apart from the POWs, Pakistan lost six thousand men, while India lost two thousand.[44] After the war, Manekshaw was known for his compassion towards the POWs. Singh recounts that in some cases he addressed POWs personally, talking to them privately with just his aide-de-camp in his company while they shared a cup of tea. He ensured that POWs were well treated by the Indian Army, making provisions for them to be supplied with the copies of the Quran, and allowing them to celebrate festivals, and to receive letters and parcels from their loved ones.
After the end of the war, Gandhi decided to promote Manekshaw to the rank of field marshal and subsequently appoint him as the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS). However, after several objections from the bureaucracy, and the commanders of the navy and the air force, the appointment was dropped. It was felt that, as Manekshaw was from the army, as comparatively smaller forces the navy and air force would be neglected. Moreover, bureaucrats felt that it might challenge their influence over defence issues. Though Manekshaw was to retire in June 1972, his term was extended by a period of six months. On 3 January 1973, Manekshaw was conferred with the rank of field marshal at a ceremony held at Rashtrapati Bhavan. He was the first Indian army officer to be promoted to the rank.
For his service to the Indian nation, the president of India awarded Manekshaw a Padma Vibhushan in 1972 and conferred upon him the rank of field marshal, a first, on 3 January 1973. He became one of the only two army generals of independent India to be awarded this rank; the other being Kodandera Madappa Cariappa who was awarded the rank in 1986. Manekshaw retired from active service a fortnight later on 15 January 1973 after a career of nearly four decades; he settled down with his wife Silloo in Coonoor, the civilian town next to Wellington Military Cantonment where he had served as commandant of the Defence Services Staff College, at an earlier time in his career. Popular with Gurkha soldiers, Nepal fêted Manekshaw as an honorary general of the Nepalese Army in 1972.
Following his service in the Indian Army, Manekshaw successfully served as an independent director on the board of several companies, and in a few cases, as the chairman. He was outspoken and hardly politically correct, and when once he was replaced on the board of a company by a man named Naik at the behest of the government, Manekshaw quipped, "This is the first time in history when a Naik (corporal) has replaced a Field Marshal."
Although Manekshaw was conferred the rank of field marshal in 1973, it was reported that he was not given the complete allowances that he was entitled to as a field marshal. It was not until President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam took the initiative, when he met Manekshaw in Wellington, and made sure that the field marshal was presented with a cheque for Rs 1.3 crores (13 million)—his arrears of pay for over 30 years.
In May 2007, Gohar Ayub, the son of Pakistani Field Marshal Ayub Khan, claimed that Manekshaw had sold Indian Army secrets to Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 for 20,000 rupees, but his accusations were dismissed by the Indian defence establishment.
Asked by a journalist once, he said that his favourite city was London, and in another instance, said that Mohammed Ali Jinnah had asked him to join the Pakistan Army during the partition in 1947, and mentioned that if he had joined the Pakistan Army, then India would have been defeated in the 1971 war. The latter remark attracted as much criticism as anything else in his career.
Lieutenant General Jacob, chief of the staff of Eastern Command during 1971 war, in his autobiography—An Odyssey in War and Peace—wrote that Manekshaw had only gained popularity because of the media, and claimed that he had no battle experience other than during Burma Campaign in 1942. Jacob described Manekshaw as "anti-national; anti-government; anti-Semetic." Jacob also mentioned that when Manekshaw was the chief, over a phone call, he mentioned that he had had very little confidence in Lieutenant General Aurora (GOC-in-C of Eastern Command), and on being asked why he was appointing Aurora to the position, Manekshaw allegedly replied, "I like to have him as a doormat." However, according to journalist and former military officer, Ajai Shukla, it is claimed that Jacob had a habit of bracing up his reputation by tarnishing others with false claims.
On 22 April 1939, Manekshaw married Siloo Bode in Bombay. The couple had two daughters, Sherry and Maya (later Maja), born on 11 January 1940 and 24 September 1945 respectively. Sherry was married to Batliwala and they have a daughter named Brandy. Maja was employed by British Airways as a stewardess. She later married Daruwala, a pilot. The couple have two sons named Raoul Sam and Jehan Sam.
Manekshaw died of complications from pneumonia at the Military Hospital in Wellington, Tamil Nadu, at 12:30 a.m. on 27 June 2008 at the age of 94. Reportedly, his last words were "I'm okay!" He was laid to rest at the Parsi cemetery in Ootacamund (Ooty), Tamil Nadu, with military honours, adjacent to his wife's grave. He was survived by two daughters and three grandchildren.[54] However, neither the President nor the PM or other leaders from the political class turned up at his funeral, nor was a national day of mourning declared.
Annually, on 16 December, "Vijay Diwas" is celebrated in memory of the victory achieved under Manekshaw's leadership in 1971. On 16 December 2008, a postage stamp depicting Manekshaw in his field marshal's uniform was released by then President Pratibha Patil. In 2014, a granite statue was erected in his honour at Wellington, in the Nilgiris district, close to the Manekshaw Bridge on the Ooty–Coonoor road, which had been named after him in 2009.

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Indo-Soviet Joint Manned Space Flight 1985 India Stamp

The Indo-Soviet Joint Manned Space Flight put Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma into Space as the first Indian to do so, along  with Yury Malyshev and Gennady Strekalov

Mission highlights

Soyuz T-11 was the 6th expedition to Salyut 7, and carried the first Indian cosmonaut to the Salyut 7 station.

Salyut 7 was unmanned after the undocking of Soyuz T-11 in October 1984 until Soyuz T-13 docked with the station in June 1985. Salyut 7 developed problems during the unmanned time, which meant that the crew of Soyuz T-13 had to perform a manual docking and do repairs to the station.

*Oleg Atkov First space flight Soviet Union*

*Rakesh Sharma First spaceflight India*

Rakesh Sharma conducted an Earth observation program concentrating on India. He also did life sciences and materials processing experiments, including silicium fusing tests. He is also reported to have experimented with practicing yoga to deal with the effects of prolonged orbital spaceflight.

Mission duration 181 days, 21 hours, 48 minutes,

Landing date 2 October 1984, 10:57:00 UTC

Department of Posts released A commemorative postage stamp on  INDO-SOVIET JOINT MANNED SPACE FLIGHT 

 Issued Date:  03 April 1984 
 Denomination: INR 3.00 

Autism Awareness Day 2003 India Stamp

The World Autism Awareness Day (WAAD)  is on April, 02. Every year It was designated under by the United Nations General Assembly resolution "62/139. World Autism Awareness Day," adopted on December 18, 2007, proposed by Representatives of the State Qatar, and supported by all member states.

The World Autism Awareness Day Resolution had four main components:

(1) the establishment of April 2 as WAAD,

(2) participation of UN organizations, member states, NGOs and all private & public organizations in WAAD,

(3) raise awareness of Autism on all levels in society,

(4) Security-General should deliver this message to member states and all other UN organs.

Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.

Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful. An autistic culture has developed, with some individuals seeking a cure and others believing autism should be accepted as a difference and not treated as a disorder.

Autism, in a wider perspective Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD),is perhaps the most prolifically researched of all child psychiatric disorders. The greatest contributions to our understanding about the disease have come from individual clinician researchers like Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger. The concept and definition of the disorder have changed greatly over the years, even socio-political shifts as well as research findings have radically altered our understanding of the syndrome as well as the care and treatment offered to people with autism.

Department of Posts released a commemorative postage stamp during 7th International Conference  Autism held  in Europe Lisboa emphasising ‘our world of special children' 

Issued Date : 03.09.2003
Denomination : 500 Paise

Narottam Morarjee 1977 India Stamp

Narottam Morarjee  was an eminent  Indian businessperson  with major interests in shipping and textiles.

Narottam Morarjee was born on 2 April 1877 at Porbandar. His father Seth Morarjee Goculdas was a pioneering textile magnate. He studied at Elphinstone College. He started managing two mills- Morarjee Goculdas Mill of Bombay and Sholapur Mill of Sholapurwhile studying.

Narottam Morarjee later came into close contact with Mahatma Gandhi, Dr, Annie Besant, Dadabhai Naoroji, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu and Motilal Nehru.

Narottam Morarjee joined hands with other  Gujarati  businessmen, Walchand Hirachandand Kilachand Devchand to finance and establish The Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd., which was founded on 27 March 1919.

On 5 April 1919, Scindia's first ship s.s. Loyalty  sailed from Bombay to the United Kingdom and unfurled the flag of Indian shipping in international waters.

Narottam Morarjee died on 5 November 1929. Walchand Hirachand, ran some of his ventures till a year before his death in 1953. Narottam Morarjee's son Shantikumar filled in posts of his father.

The group was indebted with liabilities and ultimately, Morarjee Goculdas Mill was taken over by Seth Piramal Chaturbhuj, patriarch of the Piramal family. While, after death of Walchand in 1953, the Scindia Shipping was completely taken over by Narottam Morajee group but shipping business, could not survive the changes and stopped doing business in 1980s. Scindia Shipyard, a subsidiary of Scindia Steamship, in which Narottam Morajee, Walchand & Kilachands had stakes was nationalized by government in 1961.

Government of India, established under the joint auspices of the Government of India and Indian Shipping Industry at Mumbai for Diploma courses in Shipping Management, which has been named Narottam Morarjee Institute of Shipping, after him.

The Department of Posts honored him by releasing a commemorative postage stamp on  his centenary celebration.

Issued Date : 02.04.1977
Denomination : 25 Paise

Longest Stamp in the world

Longest Stamp in the world is from Thailand. Length 170mm

Monday, April 3, 2017

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai 1969 India Stamp

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai – he was one of the most respected freedom fighters, an able and respected leader who had shown exemplary man management and problem-solving skills during his tenure when he was a communications minister and also served as the Food and Agriculture minister.
During his time as minister, he was widely credited in bringing about worthy initiatives and implementation of laws.

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was born on February 18, 1894, in the village of Masauli in Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh to a middle class zamindar family. His father, Imtiaz Ali Kidwai was a zamindar and a government servant by profession.

In 1916, Kidwai enrolled into the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh to pursue his graduation. It was in the December of 1916 that his uncle made sure he participated in the historic session of the Congress party and the Muslim League party held at Lucknow.  In 1918, he successfully completed his B.A degree.

In 1920, Kidwai became an active force behind the Khilafat Movement and the Non-Cooperation Movement when he was jailed for the same. In 1922, he moved to Allahabad after being released from jail and served as the private secretary to Motilal Nehru. In 1926, Kidwai was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly of the British India and thus he became one of the pivotal figure of the freedom movement,

After independence, Kidwai became India’s first Minister for Communication in Jawaharlal Nehru’s cabinet. Kidwai, along with Abul Kalam Azad, were the two Muslims in Nehru’s central cabinet. *He  launched night air mail service as a minister for communications*. After the first general elections in 1952, Kidwai was entrusted with the food and agriculture portfolio.

The Logical Indian lauds Mr. Kidwai for his immense contribution to the country. Kidwai’s love for the country and commitment and desire to oust the British was firm. Kidwai, through his policies and politics, pre and post independence, has occupied a special place in the history and hearts of India and Indians.

*The Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award was created in 1956 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research  (ICAR) in 1956 to recognize Indian researchers in the agricultural field. Awards are distributed every second year, and take the form of medals, citations, and cash prizes*.

*In Nov 2011, Government of India decided to rename the Postal Staff College, Ghaziabad after him as Rafi Ahmed Kidwai National Postal Academy*

*Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology is named after him.He played a major role in donating 20 acres of the Campus land and Rs. 100,000 for the Radiotherapy  machine*.

The  Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Shri Rafi Ahmed  Kidwai & Mail Plane 20th Anniversary of "ALL-UP" Air Mail Scheme

The  design  of the  stamp  depicts  a portrait  of  shri  Rafi  Ahmed  Kidwai  at the  right  side  corner  aeroplane fling to  indicate  the  the  Night Air  Mail  service which  was  introduced  by him in 1949

Issued Date : 01.04.1969
Denomination : 20paise

First Triennale 1968 India Stamp

The Triennale-India is open to all countries and around forty countries from around the globe participate in the event bringing a range of contemporary art works by some of the well-known artists from different cultures on a common platform.

Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Arts), an apex and autonomous body funded by Ministry of Culture, has been organizing Triennale-India since 1968 in the capital city of India, New Delhi, every three years.

The Triennale-India is open to all countries and around forty countries from around the globe participate in the event bringing a range of contemporary art works by some of the well-known artists from different cultures on a common platform. An exhibition of Indian works, selected by a panel of commissioners from different parts of the country, is also held as a part of the Triennial.

An international jury consisting of experts from India and elsewhere for each Triennale selects the ten best works for ten awards. Each award consists of a cash prize together with a memento and a certificate. These awards are given for outstanding works by participating artists from India and abroad. The people of India made art and aesthetics an inalienable part of the national perception.

Lalit Kala Akademi strove consistently to uphold this process. Indian people’s love for art knows no bound. The people in Indian villages wholeheartedly respond to the various art traditions, which they have inherited and cultivated over the years. At the same time Lalit Kala Akademi wanted Indian artists to be aware about the innovative developments and experimentation in the field of visual art the world over while preserving and advancing its spiritual and cultural heritage, so as to make an effective contribution towards the harmonious development of the mankind. In order to uphold the cause of international understanding, the Lalit Kala Akademi took a decision to organise an international exhibition Triennale-India every three years in the national capital of India to give recognition to significant work of art done all over the world.

Triennale-India is a mosaic consisting of many textures, hues and colours representing the universal flavour of beauty. This rich mosaic of creativity includes various discipline like graphics, sculptures and paintings encompassed within an intangible quality of universalism and is open to public in the premises of the Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi. The mingling of numerous creative streams joins the river of human brotherhood in search of eternal ocean of truth and beauty.

This event provides a forum to the people for a cultural interaction at an international level and also help to develop love for art and beauty. This event exhorts the people to explore the possibilities of aesthetic exchange of ideas and develop love for art and beauty. The Triennale-India was conceived by Dr. Mulk Raj Anand, the then Chairman of the Lalit Kala Akademi and was first organised in New Delhi in 1968.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on first Triennale

Issued Date: 31.03.1968
Denomination : 15 Paise