Thursday, March 30, 2017

Indian Agricultural Research Institute 2006 India Stamp

The institute was originally established in 1905 at Pusa, Bihar, as Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), which was changed to Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research in 1911 and then again in 1919 as the Imperial Agricultural Research Institute.with the financial assistance of an American Philanthropist,  Henry Phipps, Jr.. Phipps was a family friend of Lady Curzon, who was the daughter of American millionaire and wife of Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India. Phipps stayed as a guest of Curzons during his visit to India.

More importantly, Phipps left behind with them a donation of $30,000, which was utilized for the establishment of the institute. He laid the foundation stone of Agricultural Research Institute and college on 1 April 1905

However the institute was damaged during the devastating Bihar earthquake of 1934 which occurred on 15 January 1934.

Thereafter the Secretary of State approved the transfer in July, 1943. The Standing Finance Committee of the Union Assembly finally announced on 25 August 1934 in Shimla, the decision to shift the institute to New Delhi at the approximate cost of ₹3.8 million (US$56,000). to a place that is now called Pusa in New Delhi.

The new campus at New Delhi was inaugurated on 29 July 1936, while the new building of the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research was inaugurated by then Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow on 7 November 1936.

Post-independence, the institute renamed Indian Agricultural Research Institute, and in 1950 the Shimla sub-station of institute developed Rust-resistant varieties of wheat, including Pusa 718, 737, 745, and 760. In 1958, it was recognized as a "deemed university" under the UGC act of 1956 of Parliament and since then it has awarded MSc and PhD degrees.

What remained of the institute at the original location was downgraded to an agricultural research station until 1970, when the Government of Bihar established the Rajendra Agricultural University at the location.

It will serve the cause of science and society with distinction through first rate research, generation of appropriate technologies and development of human resources. In fact, the Green Revolution was born in the fields of IARI and its graduates constitute the core of the quality human resource in India's agricultural research and education.

The Institute has all along been adjusting and improving its policies, plans and programmes to effectively respond to the needs and opportunities of the nation. During the fifties, the advancement of scientific disciplines constituted the core programme and provided the base for its fast expansion in the 1960s and 1970s in all its three interactive areas, namely, research, education and extension. Besides basic research, applied and commodity research gained great importance resulting in the development of several popular high yielding varieties of almost all major crops and their associated management technologies, which brought about an unprecedented increase in the national food and agricultural production.

The campus is spread over 500 hectares (5.0 km2), 8 km west of New Delhi Railway Station. This was initially outside Delhi, but over the decades the city has grown much beyond the campus. Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute is affiliated with and is located in the campus of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.

Department of  Posts  released  a postage stamp to commemorate the centenary of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute

Issued Date : 30 - 03 - 2006
Denomination : 500 Paise

Assam Rifles 1985 India Stamp

The history of the Assam Rifles dates back to 1835 when the Cachar Levy with about 750 men was raised to counter the tribal raids frequently launched on the plains of Assam.

Subsequently, the Force underwent a number of titular changes. It was in 1870 that the various existing elements of the Force were formed into three Assam Military Police battalions,

Allocated territorially for Naga Hills, Lushai Hills and Lakhimpur. These three battalions of the Assam Rifles Military Police were ultimately converted to the 3rd, 1st and 2nd Battalions of the Assam Rifles respectively. A fourth battalion of the Assam Rifles Military Police was raised in 1915 at Imphal, which today is the 4th Assam Rifles.

During the First World War the personnel of the four Assam Military Police battalions saw action in France, Egypt, East Africa, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Gallipoli, North Persia and the North West Frontier of India.

In recognition of their outstanding performance and excellent services the Government of India redesignated these units in October 1917 as The Assam Rifles.

The history of the Assam Rifles is entwined with the history of growth and development of the tribal area of erstwhile Assam. Though a para military force, the Assam Rifles has always functioned in close conjunction with the civil administration for over a century.

The force extends all forms of aid to the civil population in the development of the region while fulfilling its primary role of watch and ward. Its multifarious activities engulf road construction extension of medical assistance, spreading literacy, running fair price shops, assistance in agriculture, house construction and provision of vital radio communications in remote areas for the civil administration. Rightfully, therefore the Force has earned for itself a befitting name of "Friends of the hill people" by its civic work.

The achievements of the Assam Rifles in the pre-Independence and post-Independence periods are striking and praise worthy. 84 honours and awards bestowed on the officers and men, during the period before Independence, comprise a number of Indian Distinguished Service Medal, King’s Police Medal, Companion of the British Empire, Member of the British Empire, Military Cross and Military Medal. The Post-Independence tally of awards consisting of 3 Ashok Chakra, 22 Kirti Chakra, 4 Ati Vishist Seva Medal, 5 Vir Chakra, 71 Shaurya Chakra, 39 Sena Medal and 26 Vishist Seva Medal is equally glamorous and remains unrivalled. Three coveted Ashok Chakra-the highest gallantry award during peace is indeed a rare distinction.

The growing threats and dangers confronting national security and integrity after independence, posed new challenges for the Assam Rifles calling for a major reorganisation and expansion to meet the growing demands of counter insurgency and border vigilance in the disturbed North Eastern Region.

The Force today is headed by a Director General with his Headquarters at Shillong, and consists of five Range Headquarters and 21 Battalions spread over the North Eastern Region.

Stamp design: North-Eastern Region of the country along with soldiers of the Assam Rifles in their uniforms of 1835 and 1985.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp to mark the 150th Anniversary of the Assam Rifles.

Issued Date : 29.3.1985
Denomination : 100 Paise

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Maxim Gorky 1968 India Stamp

Writer Maxim Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, on March 28, 1868. He worked in many jobs during an impoverished and abusive childhood before finding fame and fortune as a writer. Initially a Bolshevik supporter, Gorky became a critic when Vladimir Lenin seized power. However, Gorky later served as a Soviet advocate and headed the Union of Soviet Writers. He died in Moscow on June 18, 1936.

Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov was born on March 28, 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. His father died from cholera when he was 5 years old. His mother soon remarried and left him to be raised by his maternal grandparents. His grandfather was a strict taskmaster and abusive, but his grandmother shared her knowledge of folktales with young Peshkov.

Declining family income from his grandfather's dye shop meant that Peshkov had to begin working when he was just 8. His jobs included working as an apprentice, a ship's dishwasher and a factory worker. He learned to read and write along the way, but by the time he was 21 the misery of his life prompted Peshkov to become a hobo, and he spent the next couple years wandering about Russia.

In the 1890s, Peshkov began writing. He adopted the pseudonym Maxim Gorky (choosing the name Gorky because it meant "bitter"). In 1892 his first short story "Makar Chudra," was published in various journals and became very popular with readers. Then, in 1895, the short story "Chelkash"—about a thief and a peasant boy—was published. In these and other pieces, Gorky wrote using knowledge gained from living in poverty and on the margins of society.
His perspective won him great acclaim around the country, and he was soon viewed as one of its leading writers.

In 1898 a Gorky collection, Sketches and Stories, was published. Gorky also produced full-length books and plays, beginning with the novel Foma Gordeyev (1899). His play The Lower Depths was performed in 1902; it became widely popular in Russia and throughout Europe. Gorky also penned the novel Mother (1906), a three-volume autobiography and literary portraits of fellow Russian writers such as Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov.

Gorky was a devoted Marxist and gave much of his writing income to the cause. He followed the Bolshevik wing following a party split in 1903, though he was never an official party member. Gorky was imprisoned for his actions during the Russian Revolution of 1905. He left Russia in 1906, visiting the United States with his mistress before moving to a villa on the Italian island of Capri, where he spent most of the next seven years.

Gorky eventually returned to Russia in 1913, and was living there when the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Leninseized control of the country in 1917. Gorky objected to the undemocratic tactics that were used in this takeover and frequently wrote in his newspaper, New Life, about the violence and repression that Russia experienced under Lenin's rule. Gorky was silenced in 1918 when the newspaper was shut down.

For his criticism of the Bolsheviks, Gorky was forced to leave Russia in 1921. For the next few years, he traveled through Europe before settling into life in exile in Sorrento, Italy, in 1924. He continued to write during this time, completing his autobiographical trilogy and publishing a new collection of stories. It was not until 1928—when his 60th birthday was extensively celebrated—that Gorky returned to Russia.

Joseph Stalin, who had taken control of the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death, decided that it would be better to have Gorky return permanently. Not only was Gorky an acclaimed writer, but having him inside the country would also make it easier to keep an eye on his activities. In the early 1930s, a campaign was launched to convince Gorky to return—a Moscow street and his birth city were named after him, and he was promised a prominent role in the country's literary life.

By 1933, Gorky was ensconced in the Soviet Union and was restricted from foreign travel. He took on the leadership of the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934, echoing Stalin's viewpoint that writers should be "mechanics of culture" and "engineers of the soul." Gorky voiced no objections about forced labor and other Stalinist atrocities, a contrast to his stance in 1917.

On June 18, 1936 (some sources say July), Gorky died at his villa in Gorki Leninskiye, outside of Moscow. He was 68. Gorky had been unwell and undergoing medical treatment, but rumors circulated that Stalin had arranged for his death. However, Stalin made no outward sign of renouncing Gorky, whose ashes were placed in the Kremlin Wall

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Maxim Gorky Birth Centenary

Issued  Date : 28.03.1968
Denomination :15 Paise

Monday, March 27, 2017

Nalanda College 1970 India Stamp

Bihar Sharif Nalanda College was founded by Edal Singh, a landlord in Bihar. He had granted 8.7 acres of land for the college. To remember his contribution, his statue is standing in the campus. It was at first under the jurisdiction of the University of Calcutta, then it came under Bihar University, and finally under Magadh University, Bodhgaya. D. P. Singh was appointed principal of the college. After his retirement, Dr. S. N. Sinha took the charge as the principal of this college.

Nalanda College, Bihar sharif (Bihar) is the oldest college of the Magadh University. It was established a century back as the Bihar English High School. The first batch of students appeared in the year 1871 from the Calcutta University.

Thanks to the munificent donation made by the late Rai Bahadue Edal Singh, its founder, it blossomed into a full-fledged college in 1920. The donor gave away his zamindari property worth Rs. Two and a half lakhs with an annual income of Rs. 12,000 for the setting up of the college.

The institution takes its name after the famous and ancient Nalanda University. The college was inaugurated by the then Lt. Governor of Bihar on 20th July, 1920. The institution worked as a school upgraded into a school-cum-intermediate college and renamed 'Nalanda College', the inatitution was upgraded into a degree college.

It is presently a degree college affiliated to the Magadh University (Gaya) catering to both arts and science with about 2,000 students on the roll. The colege is teaching up to Honours standard in almost all subjects of arts and science. Recently, the Government of Bihar have decided to covert this college as a constituent unit of the Magadh University with effect from 1st April, 1970.

In the year 1926, the Government of Bihar, realising the importance of this institution, made this college a fully deficit-aided college and since then the Government of Bihar has been meeting the deficit of the college. The college has been able to build up a good library out of the grant given by the University Grants Commission.

It has also a fine auditorium-cum-recreation hall built under the campus project scheme of the Government of India at a cost of Rs. 1.25 lakhs. The college has two hostels in the college campus and one outside maintained by the college. Yhis institution has been rendering yeoman service to the cause of higher education in Bihar State and some of its alumni are already adorning high posts in the public life of the State.

The college has been serving all classes of people without distinction of caste or creed and has been admiting students from all corners of the State. Nalanda college is celebrated its centenary in 1970 in recognition of its 100 years of useful service to the cause of higher education.

On this memorable occasion, then Posts and Telegraphs Department has great plaesure in bringing out a special postage stamp to commemorate this event.

Issued  Date : 27.03.1970
Denomination : 25 Paise

Sunday, March 26, 2017

UPASI Centenary 1994 India Stamp

UPASI (The United Planters' Association of Southern India) is an apex body of planters of tea, coffee, rubber, pepper and cardamom in the Southern States of India viz. Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka in existence since 1893. 

The urge to unite for a common cause - a very prevalent trait years ago and also now - gave birth to UPASI  *Thirteen District Planting Associations assembled on 28th August 1893 in the Mayo Hall, Bangalore for a UNITED organization; thus the United Planters' Association of Southern India was formed.*

During these years UPASI was not a bystander but an insider in the metamorphosis that has taken place in the country. In the historical event of India gaining Independence and subsequently declaring as a Sovereign Republic, the gradual and smooth ownership change from British to Indians, in the social reforms, building up of the infrastructure, in the awakening of the country and in hundreds of such momentous journey of the nation, UPASI adapted itself to the changes with remarkable resilience. It is a measure of the statesmanship, pragmatic leadership and foresight of those who were at the helm of affairs of UPASI that ripples created by these developments on the functioning of UPASI were not allowed to become waves.

Differences notwithstanding; it is this macro level approach of adjustment to changing times, to changing Government styles and approaches, to expectations and aspirations of those connected with plantation industry, that led to acceptance of the representative character and credibility of UPASI by the powers that be at various times. UPASI was heard with respect. UPASI was given place in various Committees and Forums.
And that continues even today.

Today there are 13 District Planting Associations and 3 State Planters Associations affiliated to UPASI.

Enlightened planters decades back chalked out programmes and activities of UPASI encompassing areas, such as, research, welfare schemes for workers, sports etc. UPASI and State Planters Association have been entering into settlements with the Unions which had lead to comparatively better industrial relations climate in the planting industry.

Appreciating the fact that Research is the backbone of development, tea planters of South India set up a Tea Research Institute in Tamil Nadu as early as 1936.

Yet another unique feature of the bygone era was that planting industry took lead in implementing labour welfare measures legislated and by far the benefits given under the schemes were above the legislative frame.

To promote, diffuse and disseminate knowledge relating to planting and the plantation industry, in whatever manner necessary the true facts relating to the planting industries so as to promote public understanding and appreciation of matters pertaining to those industries.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on United Planters' Association of South India - Centenary

Issued Date : 26.03.1994
Denomination: 200 Paise

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi 1962 India Stamp

Remembering  Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi.

"I am a fighter against oppression and injustice, whether practiced by bureaucracy, zamindars, capitalists or high caste. I have fought all my life against oppression an inhumanity and may God give me strength to fight on till the last." - Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi. No other words can nearly try to comprehend who Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi was and what was his contribution than the words he said himself.

He was exactly that and fight he did, until the very last breath before passing onto martyrdom by risking his own life to save thousands. Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, a journalist and a nationalist, was dedicated in bringing about a revolution through his writing and participation in the national movement. His writing had forceful yet clear style and his efforts to work in favor of the repressed caught attention of the biggies of the Indian politics including Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru. A lion hearted martyr!

Ganesh Shankar was born on 26th October 1890 in Fatehpur, near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. His mother was Gomati Devi. His father, Shri Jai Narayan, was an assistant teacher in a middle school in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

Ganesh Shankar received his early education; under his father's wings, and passed the examination in 1907. In the same year, he joined the Kayastha Pathshala College in Allahabad, but had to leave after some time due to financial reasons.

He took up a job of a clerk in the currency office and later as a teacher in a high school in Kanpur. But it was political journalism towards which he was inclined. As an agent of popular Hindi and Urdu journals called 'Karamyogi' and 'Swarjya', Ganesh Shankar also began to contribute to them. In 1911,

He was made the sub-editor of Pandit Mahabir Prasad's monthly, 'The Saraswati', and later joined the Hindi weekly, 'Abhyudaya', a political journal, to fulfill his inclination towards political journalism.

 It was in 1913 that Ganesh Shankar came back to Kanpur and launched 'Pratap', a weekly that fought for the cause of the oppressed. It was through 'Pratap' that he fought many battles, including his famous fights for the peasants of Rae Bareli, workers of Kanpur Mills, and the repressed people of other Indian states.

He faced several prosecutions, paid fines, and was imprisoned five times in pursuit of justice for the subjugated. He remained its editor till his death. After a gap of three years since he launched 'Pratap';

it was in 1916 that Ganesh Shankar met Mahatma Gandhi in Lucknow for the first time and plunged into the national movement. It was about the same time when he got closely associated with Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru and became an active member of the Indian National Congress. 

In 1917-1918, Ganesh Shankar took an active part in the Home Rule Movement and also led the first strike of Kanpur's textile workers.

In 1920 that he was arrested on charges of causing an uprising by criticizing the government and zamindars and leading the peasants of Rae Bareli; all through launching the daily edition of 'Pratap'.

He was sentenced two years of imprisonment. Immediately after being released from the prison in 1922; Ganesh Shankar was imprisoned again for delivering an insurgent speech as the President of Provincial Political Conference at Fatehgarh.

He was released out of prison after two years in 1924. In 1925, he became the Chairman of the reception committee of the All India Congress Committee (AICC), and served as a member of the UP Legislative Council from 1926 to 1929. In 1929, ganesh Shankar became the president of the UP Political Conference held at Farrukhabad, and the President of the UP Congress Committee in 1930. 

The communal riots that had erupted in Kanpur, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi lost his life on 25th March, 1931 in trying to restore peace and saving innocent people of both Hindu and Muslim community.

The  Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi

Issued Date: 25. 03. 1962
Denomination :15 Naya Paise

Robert Koch 1982 India Stamp

This is an account of the life and work of Robert Koch (1843-1910), Nobel Laureate in Medicine and a founder of the science of bacteriology. In particular, Koch's researches into tuberculosis are described — the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, the controversy regarding the human and bovine types, the Koch phenomenon, and the introduction of tuberculin, which proved to be ineffective as a cure but became important as a diagnostic tool in the management of tuberculosis. By his achievements in this field, Koch may be considered to be the father of the scientific study of tuberculosis. On the occasion of the centenary of Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, we pay tribute to this great German master of medicine.

Robert Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882 was a major event in the history of medicine, a turning point in our understanding and conquest of that deadly disease which had plagued mankind for millenia. After centuries of speculation as to the possible infectious nature of tuberculosis, Koch proved conclusively that the cause of the disease was infection by a specific micro-organism which he isolated. In tuberculosis, both seed and soil play their part, but without the seed — the tubercle bacillus — there is no disease.

On the occasion of the centenary of Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus, we pay tribute to the father of the modern scientific approach to the management of tuberculosis and departments  of Posts  released commemorative postage stamp on Robert Koch's

Issued Date : 24.03.1982
Denomination : 35 Paise

Friday, March 24, 2017

Kaliya Mardana 1982 India Stamp

Kaliya Mardana (bronze statue),- 9th Century A.D

The cast in bronze shows Krishna dancing on the serpent hoods of Kaliyanaga. Krishna's right hand is in "abhayamudra" (imparting protection), while with the left he is holding the tail of the snake. The elegantly carved image wears the usual ornaments- necklace, armlets, girdle, anklets, etc., and short drawers. Nagaraja is shown under five hoods with hands held in "anjalimudra" (Pose of salutation). The rectangular pedestal of the image has four hooks on four corners meant to fasten it tightly with the wooden pedestal kept on temple chariots to carry it out in religious processions. A Kaliya-Krishna of the period of transition from Pallava to Chola and nearer the earliest phase of Chola idiom, this belongs to 9 Century A.D. The delicate treatment of the dancing figure balanced on the hoods of the snake and the charm of the Nagaraja represented against the snakehoods are notewirthy. Kaliya-Mardan- The Legend In the river Kalindi, there was another lake which was theabode of the serpant kaliya. Kaliya polluted te water of the river by its venom. In order to subdue the serpent, so as the pollution is stopped, Krishna jumped down from a Kadamba tree into the river and began to play in the water, striking it with his arms. The noise created by Krishna, obviously, enraged KAliya and the later encircled Krishna with his coils. To the joy of all Krishna set himself free from the coils of the serpent. Mow came the opportunity when the arrogance of Kaliya could be crushed. He placed one of his feet on his hoods. Kaliya suffered extreme pain on account of the weight of Krishna's body. Because of the constant fight with Krishna, the serpent king Kaliya became tired and powerless. The moment he ws completely subdued, Krishna stood on the serpent's head and began to dance. (Text by courtesy: National Museum).

The stamp portrays a bronze statue of the 9th century A.D. available at National Museum, New Delhi.

Department of Posts released this  commemorative postage stamp during  Festival of India in UK in 1982

Issued Date : 23.03.1982
Denomination : 305 Paise

Ancient sculpture 1982 India Stamp

Ancient Sculpture -Deer (Stone Carving) - 5th Century A.D

An excellent example of classical art of India, the beautiful sculpture depicting a grou of four deer with charming feagures, formed only a part of the decorative scheme of the famous Parvati temple at Nachna-Kuthar in Madhya Pradesh. In the original setting of the shrine, which was possibly dedicated to Shiva, this remarkable relief was fixed in a cavern like niche within the facade of jagati or scole of the Temple which itself was sculptured as a conventional hilock representing probably Siva's abode that is the sacred mount Kailasa. The superstructure bearing excellently carved doorjamb had a processional path and a storeyed-top. It was on the stylistic considerations that the shrine has been dated to Circa fifth century A.D. and is believed to mark an early stage in the growth of the northern temple architecture. The sculptures of this shrine including the carved deer exemplify fine tradition of the Gupta Art. 

Stamp depicts Deers in a sculpture belonging to 5th century A.D. available at National Museum in the collection of Smt. Pupul Jayakar.  

Department of Posts released this commemorative postage stamp during Festival of India in UK in 1982

Issued Date : 23.03.1982

Denomination: 200 Paise

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Bhagat Singh Martyrs Day India Stamp 1968

23rd of March is declared
Martyrs Day, also known as Shaheed Diwas or Sarvodaya Day, is observed in India on March 23 every year. On this day, Indians pay homage to martyrs Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru and remember their sacrifices. The famous trio lost their lives on March 23, 1931 while they were very young.

The revolutionaries fought for the freedom of the country and were hanged to death by the British. On Shaheed Diwas, the entire nation honours their sacrifice to help gain freedom from the clutches of the Britishers.

The Government of India has declared March 23 as Martyrs Day in India, although Martyrs Day is also observed on January 30, the day Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. 

On March 23, every Indian remembers Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru who lost their lives on the day in 1931 when they were hanged to death by the Raj. The death anniversary of the three great Indian freedom fighters Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru is observed on Martyrs Day. 

Various events take place on March 23, as Indians pay tribute to the three. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru continue to inspire the youth of modern India, and we are sure they will linger in our hearts now and forever. Let's have a look at the story of these famous three who are honoured on Martyrs Day every year

*(1) Bhagat Singh (September 27 or 28, 1907 – March 23, 1931)*

Bhagat Singh, a well-known freedom fighter was born on September 27 or 28 in 1907 in Punjab in British India. His exact day of birth is not known. He was a revolutionary socialist and very influential in the Indian freedom struggle. His father and two uncles were the members of the Ghadar Party, which worked hard for the Indian independence movement. Bhagat Singh along with his other companions Rajguru, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sukhdev and Jai Gopal took revenge for the assassination of Lala Lajpat Rai. On April 8, 1929, Bhagat Singh along with his mates threw bombs at the Central Legislative Assembly and later, instead of escaping, stayed put shouting 'Inquilab Zindabad'. As a result of the attack that was not aimed to kill, Deputy Superintendent of Police J P Saunders was assassinated.

*(2) . Sukhdev Thapar (May 15, 1907 – March 23, 1931)*

Sukhdev was was born on May 15, 1907, in Punjab. Like Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev was also the member of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). He also established the Naujawan Bharat Sabha organisation which helped the young participate in the freedom struggle and fight communalism. On December 18, 1928, Sukhdev was involved in Lahore Conspiracy Case. Sukhdev was an accomplice of Bhagat Singh during the Central Assembly Hall bombings.

*(3) . Shivaram Rajguru (August 24, 1908 – March 23, 1931)*

Shivaram Hari Rajguru was a revolutionary from Pune, Maharashtra, who was accused in the assassination of J P Saunders along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev. Rajguru was born on August 24, 1908. He went on to be a member of HRSA as well. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev wanted India to get freedom from British rule.

All three revolutionaries were jailed with murder charges and soon gained widespread national support. They also undertook a 116-day hunger strike while demanding equal rights for Indians from the British. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged on March 23, 1931 at 7.30 pm in the Lahore jail. Their bodies was cremated on the banks of the Sutlej River.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Bhagat Singh, (1968) & Shivaram  Hari  Rajguru (2013)

Bhagat Singh,
Issued date:19.10.1968
Denomination : 25 Paise

Shivaram  Hari  Rajguru,
Issued date: 23.10.2013
Denomination : 25 Paise

Surya Sen 1978 India Stamp

Surya Sen was a Bengali independence fighter who led the 1930 Chittagong armoury raid against the British colonial rule in India. A revolutionary at heart, he was the chief architect of the anti-British freedom movement in Chittagong, Bengal. He was instrumental in building the momentum for a nationwide non-cooperation movement that spread to far corners of the country. Independent minded and idealistic from a young age, he first learned about the Indian freedom movement from one of his teachers when he was a college student. The seed of revolution took root in his heart and he proceeded to join revolutionary organization Anushilan Samity.

He also became associated with the Indian National Congress, the most prominent political party at that time. After completing his studies, he embarked on a teaching career and earned much respect in this profession. He continued his involvement with the freedom struggle with increased intensity and in 1930, led a group of like-minded revolutionaries to raid the armoury of police and auxiliary forces from the Chittagong armoury. Even though the group had made elaborate plans to completely cut off Chittagong from rest of the British India, they were not able to execute their plan in its entirety. Surya Sen was eventually arrested by the British and tortured and executed.

Suryakumar Sen was born on 22 March 1894, in Chittagong, Bengal Presidency, British India, to Ramaniranjan Sen and Shashibala. His father was a teacher, and their family was a lower middle class one.

He grew up to be an idealistic and independent minded young man. He completed his B.A. from Behrampore College. While he was a student there, he was exposed to the ideals of the Indian freedom movement by one of his teachers. He instantly connected with the revolutionary ideals and joined a revolutionary organization Anushilan Samity

After completing his studies, Surya Sen became a teacher at National school, Nandankanan. During this time he also intensified his involvement in the Indian independence struggle and became associated with the Indian National Congress, the most prominent political party there. In 1918, he was selected as president of Indian National Congress, Chittagong branch.

He quickly gained respect as a teacher. In addition to his regular duties as a teacher, he also used to discuss the relevance of the freedom struggle with his students. He formed a revolutionary group along with other like-minded individuals such as Nirmal Sen and Ambika Chakraborty.

By the early 1920s he was successful in spreading revolutionary ideals to different parts of the Chittagong district. He was convinced that a secret Guerilla was the need of the moment given the many challenges they faced, including the lack of equipment and other resources.

He believed violent action was needed to revolutionize the independence struggle and planned to raid the armoury of police and auxiliary forces from the Chittagong armoury in Bengal province of British India. He teamed up with other revolutionaries like Ganesh Ghosh, Lokenath Bal, Naresh Roy, Sasanka Datta, Ardhendu Dastidar, and others to plan this raid.

He proposed that the team capture the two main armouries in Chittagong and then destroy the telegraph and telephone office before assassinating members of the "European Club"—the government or military officials involved in maintaining the British Raj in India. The elaborate plan also included cutting off rail and communication lines in order to sever Chittagong from Calcutta.

The plan was executed on 18 April 1930. A group of revolutionaries led by Ganesh Ghosh captured the police armoury, while another group of ten men led by Lokenath Bal took the Auxiliary Forces armory.

There were around 65 individuals involved in the raid, but the revolutionaries could not locate ammunition though they were successful in cutting telephone and telegraph wires and disrupting the movement of the trains.

However 18 April 1930 was Good Friday and most of the Europeans were at home. On learning of the raid, they raised an alarm and took out the troops. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries gathered outside the police armory where Surya Sen took a military salute, hoisted the National Flag, and proclaimed a Provisional Revolutionary Government.

After the raid the revolutionaries took shelter in Jalalabad hills near Chittagong. On 22 April 1930, they were surrounded by several thousand troops and a bloody gunfight followed. Over 80 troops and 12 revolutionaries were killed.

Surya Sen dispersed the remaining revolutionaries to neighboring villages in small groups. Several of them were arrested or killed over the ensuing days while some managed to flee to Calcutta. Sen himself lived in hiding, frequently moving from one place to another. During this period he worked as a farmer, a milkman, and a priest among others. Meanwhile, the other escaped revolutionaries managed to reorganize their broken organization.

The movement suffered a heavy blow when an insider of the group, Netra Sen, betrayed Surya Sen and gave away his location to the British police. The police arrested Surya Sen on 16 February 1933. Enraged, one of the revolutionaries killed Netra Sen in retaliation.

Surya Sen was the leader of the Chittagong Armoury Raid, also known as Chittagong uprising in 1930. He led a group of armed revolutionaries for Indian independence and was successful in capturing police armoury and the Auxiliary Forces armory. The group also managed to capture the European club's headquarters. This incident served as an inspiration to several other revolutionaries  all over the country.

After Sen was arrested, fellow revolutionary Tarakeshwar Dastidar made a plan to rescue Surya Sen from the Chittagong Jail. However the police learned of the plan and thwarted it, arresting all those involved.

Surya Sen along with Tarekeshwar Dastidar was hanged by the British on 12 January 1934. He was brutally tortured before his execution. Many movies on the life of this brave revolutionary have been made.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on the  great Indian  freedom fighter Surya Sen

Issued Date: 22. 03.1978
Denomination :25 Paise

Water Year 2007 India Stamp

Clean water is the world’s most prestigious and rarest assets and essential need of everyone’s daily life. An average person in the world consumes more than 100 liters of clean water per day but  some people living in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing areas have to survive with 20 liters or less for full day.So Water is precious and we must conserve it !! Today is World Water Dayand it  is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources.

This day was first formally proposed in Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. The United Nations (UN) designated 22 March as International World Water Day in 1992 at the same conference.

In 1993, the first World Water Day was designated by the United Nations General Assembly and each year since then has focused on a different issue.

*World Water Day* is an annual event celebrated on 22 March. The day focuses attention on the importance of universal access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in developing countries.The day also focuses on advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources.

World Water Day is supported by stakeholders across the globe. Many organizations promote clean water for people and sustainable aquatic habitats. Events such as theatrical and musical celebrations, educational events, and campaigns to raise money for access to clean and affordable water are held worldwide on or close to 22 March.

UN-Water selects a theme for each year.Previous themes include: 'Why waste water?' (2017), 'Water and Jobs' (2016) and 'Water and Sustainable Development' (2015).

World Water Day is an international observance day. It is meant to inspire people around the world to learn more about water-related issues, tell others about these issues and take action to make a difference, particularly in developing countries.

One of these issues is the global water crisis.The global water crisis includes challenges such as water scarcity, water pollution, inadequate water supply and the lack of sanitation for billions of people in developing countries. The day brings to light the inequality of access to WASH services and the need to assure the human right to water and sanitation.

*Clean Water is the world’s most prestigious and rarest assets*

Save  water 💧

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on water year in  2007

Issued  Date : 28.12.2007
Denomination :500 Paise

Ustad Bismillah Khan 2008 India Stamp

Born on March 21, 1916 into a family of court musicians in Bihar, Bismillah Khan burst upon the scene at the All India Music Conference in Kolkata in 1937.

The next seven decades saw the word "Shehnai" becoming so completely synonymous with the name of Ustad Bismillah Khan that one name was enough to conjure up the other. 

His haunting rendition of the various ragas on the Shehnai saw him accorded the rare privilege performing on the occasion of Independence Day, 15 August, 1947, as well as on the occasion of first Republic Day on January 26, 1950.

Bismillah Khan's Shehnai recital became an integral part of the Independence Day celebrations. 

The search for the Self through music has perhaps been best embodied, in the modern era, in the persona and Shehnai of Ustad Bismillah Khan. His life was a reminder of the need to transcend the externalities of religion and caste. 

He was a living metaphor of the great pluralistic traditions of India-and for Ustad Saheb, this need to bond with every being was defined completely by the search for the perfect "Sur" (Note). 

Ustad Bismillah Khan was conferred with the highest civilian award 'Bharat Ratna' in 2001. He passed away on August 21, 2006 at the age of ninety. 

The Department of Posts has brought out the commemorative postage stamp as a tribute to the great personalities Shehnai Maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan. (musician) on his death anniversary.

Issued  Date : 21.08.2008
Denomination : 500 Paise

Rani Avantibai 1988 India Stamp

Rani (Queen) of Ramgarh State in central India, is remembered for her valiant fight against the British during the 1857 War of Independence, when she made the supreme sacrifice of her life for the freedom of motherland.

The blatant annexations of estates by British officials antagonised the local rulers and as the events of the Revolt of 1857 unfolded, they became the most dangerous opponents of the British. Avantibai Lodhi was the queen of King Vikramaditya Singh of Ramgarh.

When Vikramaditya Singh became incapable of handling the affairs of the State due to ill health, Avantibai Lodhi rose to the occasion and took charge of the administration.  In 1851, Avantibai Lodhi felt humiliated by the appointment of an English Tehsildar for Ramgarh.

When the Revolt of 1857 broke out, Rani Avantibai Lodhi raised an army of four thousand and led it herself. In the first encounter which took place in a village named Kheri, she routed the British troops. However, stung by the defeat the British came back with vengeance and launched an attack on Ramgarh.

Avantibai Lodhi's courage and fighting spirit was not enough to match their mighty military machine with all its brutal strength.

The Rani was forced to leave Ramgarh and move to the dense forests on the hill of Devharigarh. Surrounded and faced with the prospect of defeat Avantibai Lodhi thought it better to sacrifice her life rather than to surrender. On 20th March 1858, Rani Avantibai Lodhi became a martyr.

Narmada Valley Development Authority named the dam in Jabalpur district in the honour of freedom fighter Rani Avantibai Lodhi. The Rani Avanti Bai Lodhi Sagar (Bargi) project is major multipurpose project across river Narmada in Madhya Pradesh. The main dam is located at a distance of about 45 km from Jabalpur city. The project has a composite earthen and masonry dam with a canal system on the left bank to provide annual irrigation of 2,19,000 hectare (CCA – 1,57,000 hectare) in Jabalpur and Narsinghpur district. It also provide water supply of 54 Mcum to Jabalpur city. The project has also hydro power generation capacity of 100 MW.

Department of Posts issued the stamp in honour of Rani Avantibai.

Issued Date : 20.03.1988
Denomination : 60 Paise

Madhubala 2008 India miniature sheet Stamp

The act of issuing postage stamps in memory of film personalities dates back to 1971, when the postage department issued a stamp to mark the birth centenary of Dadasaheb Phalke, touted as the father of Indian cinema.

A research of almost two years by the Philatelic Advisory Committee at the Department of Posts goes behind the release of such stamps. Madhubala is only the second Indian actress after Nargis to have a postage stamp released in her honour.

Mumtaz Jahan Begum Dehlavi alias Madhubala was born on February 14, 1933 in a poor family of Pathan Muslims. She was the fifth of eleven children. Her father, Ataullah Khan, migrated from Delhi to Mumbai in search of better prospects.

A holy Muslim man is said to have predicted that young Mumtaz would attain fame and fortune, but at the cost of unhappy life and an early death. Those words came true.

Mumtaz made her debut in films in 1942 in the film "Basant" as an eight-year-old chilled artiste. So impressed was the film's producer, Devika Rani, with her performance that she was rechristened Madhubala.

Her film career last all of 27 years. She died on February 23, 1969 from a heart-related problem.

Department of  Posts issued a Miniature Sheet consisting one of diamond  shape commemorative  postage stamp  on  Madhubala, famous Bollywood  Film Actress

Issued Date :19.03.2008  
Denomination : 500 paise

Dr. K. B. Hegdewar 1999 India Stamp

Keshav Baliram Hedgewar (1 April 1889 – 21 June 1940) was the founding Sarsanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Hedgewar founded the RSS in Nagpur in 1925, with the intention of promoting the concept of a united India rooted in indigenous ideology. He drew upon influences from the Congress Party to start the RSS as a reaction to the Malabar riots.

Hedgewar was born on 1 April 1889 in a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin family in Nagpur. His parents were Baliram Pant Hedgewar and Revati. His father was an orthodox priest and they were a family of modest means. When Keshav was thirteen, both his parents succumbed to the epidemic of plague. His elder brothers Mahadev Pant, and Sitaram Pant ensured that he received a good education.[citation needed]

When he was studying in Neel City High School in Nagpur, he was rusticated  for singing "Vande Mataram"  in violation of the circular issued by the then British government.

As a result, he had to pursue his high school studies at the Rashtriya Vidyalaya in Yavatmal and later in Pune. After matriculating, he was sent to Kolkata by B. S. Moonje (National President of the Hindu Mahasabha) in 1910 to pursue his medical studies. After passing the L.M.S. Examination from the National Medical College in June 1914, he completed a yearlong apprenticeship and returned to Nagpur in 1915 as a doctor.

Hedgewar actively participated in Indian National Congress in the 1920s. But he got disillusioned with their policies and politics. The outbreak of the Hindu-Muslim riot in 1923 made him ponder over an alternate model of nation-building in India. He was deeply influenced by the writings of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. He considered that the cultural and religious heritage of Hindus should be the basis of Indian nationhood.

Hedgewar founded RSS in 1925 on the day of Vijayadashami with an aim to organise Hindu community for its cultural and spiritual regeneration and make it a tool in getting the country free from foreign domination. Hedgewar insisted on the term 'rashtriya' (national) for his exclusively 'Hindu' organization, for he wanted to re-assert the identity of Hindu with 'rashtriya'. This can be confirmed by the 'prarthana'(prayer) sung at the end of every shakha meeting, along with the slogans of Bharat Mata Ki Jai.Hedgewar created a female wing of the organization in 1936.

His initial followers included Bhaiyaji Dani, Babasaheb Apte, Balasaheb Deoras, and Madhukar Rao Bhagwat, among others. The Sangh was growing in Nagpur and the surrounding districts. And it soon began to spread to other provinces too. Hedgewar went to a number of places and inspired the youths for taking up the Sangh work. Gradually all his associates had begun to endearingly call him as 'Doctorji.' Upon his urging, Swayamsevaks went to far-off cities like Kashi, Lucknow etc., for their further education and started 'Shakhas' there.[citation needed]

His health deteriorated in later years of his life. Often he suffered from chronic back pain. He started delegating his responsibilities to M.S.Golwalkar, who later succeeded him as Sarsanghachalak of RSS. In January 1940, he was taken to Rajgir in Bihar for the hot-spring treatment.

He attended the annual Sangh Shiksha Varg in 1940, where he gave his last message to Swayamsevaks, saying: 'I see before my eyes today a miniature Hindu Rashtra."

 He died on the morning of 21 June 1940 in Nagpur. His last rites were performed in the locality of Resham Bagh in Nagpur.

Department of Posts released a commemorative postage stamp on memory  of Dr. K. B.  Hegdewar

Issued  Date : 18.03.1999
Denomination : 300 Paise

Jhulelal Sahib 2013 India Stamp

Jhulelal Saint also known as Lal Sai, Uderolal, Varun Dev, Doolhalal & Zinda Pir

Jhulelal as the Asht Dev (community God) of sindhis. His Birthday "Cheti Chand" second tithi of Chaitra auspicious for sindhis and is celebrated the world over with traditional pomp and gaiety. But how, when and where in history was the lord of sind born?

The Hindu legend of Jhulelal or the River Diety has its historical or semi-historical beginnings in Sind, an erstwhile province of united India and now a state of Pakistan. During the days of Sapt-Sindhu (land of seven rivers), the mainstream Sindhu and its tributaries were considered life-givers to the people who lived on its banks and drew sustenance from its waters. It was precisely the lure of plentiful water that brought invading hordes of Muslim rulers from the neighbouring Arabian Kingdoms to Sind and India. Having conquered Sind and its adjoining territories, they spread Islam at the point of the sword. In the 10th century A.D. Sind came under the rule of Samras. The Samras being converts from Hinduism to Islam were neither bigots nor fanatics. However, there was no exception in the Sumra region. Being far away from its capital, Thatta maintained its separate identity and influence. Its rulers Mirkshah was not only a tyrant but also a religious fanatic. And as in the wont of many a tyrant, Mirkshah too was surrounded by sycophants. These friends advised him one day : "Spread Islam and you will be granted 'Janat' or eternal bliss after death."

Swayed by the promise, Mirkshah summoned the 'panchs' (representatives) of the Hindus and ordered them : "Embrace Islam or prepare to die". The terrified Hindus begged Mirkshah for time to consider the 'shahi firman' or royal edict. The pompous Mirkshah relented and agreed to give the desperate Hindus forty days to plead with their God.

Faced with imminent death, the Hindus turned to God Varuna, the God of the River, to come to their aid. For forty days, they underwent penance. They neither shaved nor wore new clothes, praying and fasting and singing songs in the praise of God Varuna. They beseeched him to deliver them from the hands of their persecutor.

On the fortieth day, a voice was heard from Heaven : "Fear not, I shall save you from the wicked Mirkshah. I shall come down as a mortal and take birth in the womb of Mata Devki in the house of Ratanchand Lohano of Nasarpur". After forty days of chaliho, the followers of Jhulelal even today celebrate the occasion with festivity as Thanksgiving Day.

The oppressed Hindus now anxiously awaited the birth of their deliverer. After three months, the second tithi of Asu month, they got confirmation of the news that Mata Devki has indeed conceived. The River God has incarnated himself in her womb. The Hindus rejoiced and praised the Lord.

On Cheti Chand, two tithis from the new moon of Chaitra, Mata Devki gave birth to a boony boy,  A miracle hailed the child's birth.  The babe opened his mouth and behold! there flowed the Sindhu with an old man sitting cross-legged on a pala fish.  The pala fish as everyone knows is a tasty fish which always swims against the current.

To welcome the newborn 'avatar', unseasonal clouds gathered and brought down torrential rains.  The child was named 'Udaichand' (Uday in Sanskrit means moon-beams).  Udaichand was to be the light in the darkness.  An astrologer who saw the child  predicted that he would grow up to be a great warrior and his fame would outlive the child.  Udaichand was also called 'Uderolal' (Udero in Sanskrit means 'one who has sprung from water').  Inhabitants of Nasarpur lovingly called the child 'Amarlal' (immortal) child.  The cradle where little Udero rested began to sway to and fro on its own.  It is because of this that 'Uderolal' became popularly known as 'Jhulelal' or the swinging child.  Soon after the child's birth Mata Devki passed away.  A little later Ratanchand  remarried.

News of the birth of the mysterious child reached Mirkshah who once again summoned the Panchs and repeated his royal threat.  Hindus, now quite confident that their saviour had arrived, implored him for some more time informing him that their saviours was none other than the Water God himself.  Mirkshah scoffed at the very idea of a child saving the Hindus.  "Neither am I going to die nor are you, people going to leave this land alive", he jeered.  "I shall wait.   When your saviour embraces Islam, I am sure you will also follow suit."   With this remark, the haughty Mirkshah threw a challen he to his Hindu subjects.

The  maulvis pressed Mirkshah hard not to let the Hindus of the hook.  But the very thought of the child proving more than a match for him amused the conceited ruler.  He therefore told the maulvis to wait and watch.  As a token precaution, he asked one of his ministers Ahirio, to go to Nasarpur to see things first hand, Ahirio did not want to take any chances.  So he took along a rose dipped in deadly poison.

At the very first glimpse of the child, Ahirio was astonished.  He had never seen a child so dazzling or more charming.  He hesitated, then mustering courage proferred the rose to the child.  *The child gave a meaningful smile while accepting the rose.  He then blew away the flower with a single breath.  The flower fell at Ahirio's feet.  Ahirio watched stupefied as the babe changed into an old man with a long beard.  All of a sudden the old man turned into a lad of sixteen. And then he saw Uderolal on horseback with a blazing sword in his hand.*  There were row upon row warriors behind him.  A cold shiver ran down Ahirio's spine and he bowed his head in reverence.  "Have mercy on me Sindhu Lord", he prayed "I am convinced".

On his return Ahirio narrated the miraculous happening to Mirkshah.   But Mirkshah was not convinced.  He hardened his heart even more.   "How can a little baby turn into an old     man ? " he mocked.  "It looks like you have been fooled by simple magic."  But in his heart, Mirkshah was afraid.  That night he dreamt a dreadful dream.  A child was sitting on his neck.  The vision changed to an old man with a flowing beard.  And again to a warrior with a drawn sword confronting Mirkshah on the battlefield.  Next morning Mirkshah called for Ahirio and gave him orders to counter the threat posed by the child.  Ahirio, however, advised Mirkshah not to rush matters.

Meanwhile, the child Uderolal grew in stature and spirit performing miracles and comforting the sick.  Residents of Nasarpur wre fully convinced that God had come to save them.  Uderolal also received the 'Gur Mantar of 'Alakh Niranjan' from Goraknath.

To earn money for the family, Udero's stepmother would send him to the market to sell baked beans,  Instead of going to the market, Uderolal would go to the banks of the Sindhu.  There he would distribute half of the beans among beggars, the poor and the sadhus.  The other half, he would offer to the Sindhu.  He would them spend the rest of the speaking to little children and the elderly about spiritual wealth.  In the evening when it was time to go home, Udero would fish out from the river a container full of fine quality rice.  This he would take home and give it to his step mother.

Growing suspicious about her step son's behaviour, the step mother one day despatched Ratanchand to follow him.  When Ratanchand witnessed the miracle, he bowed to Uderolal froma distance and accepted him as the Saviour.

Mirkshah on the other hand was being pressurised by the Maulvis to bring Hindu infidels into the fold of Islam.  They gave him the ultimatum.   "Order the Hindus to convert or be branded as associate of kafirs."   Fearing the wrath of the clerics, Mirkshah decided to meet Uderolal face to face.   He asked Ahirio to arrange for a private meeting with Udero. 

Ahirio who had in the meantime become a devotee of Daryashah, went to the banks of the Indus and pleaded with the Water God to come to his rescue.  To Ahirio's amazement, he saw the same old man with a white beard floating on a pala fish.   Ahirio's head bowed in adoration and he understood that Uderolal, the Water God, was in fact the other form of Khwaja Khirz.  Ahirio then saw Udero leap onto a horse and gallop away with a sword in one hand and a flag in the other.

Udero appeared before Mirkshah and explained to the stubborn ruler : *"Whatever you see around you is the creation of only one God, whom you call 'Allah' and the Hindus call 'Ishwar'."* The maulvis urged Mirkshah not to pay any heed to the infidels's talks and to arrest him.  Mirkshah dithering as usual ordered hos soldiers to arrest Udero.

As the officials of the court moved towards Udero, great waves of water leaped forth inundating the courtyard and crowning Mirkshah and his courtiers.  Fire too broke our and the palace was consumed by the flames.  All escape routes were sealed.  Udero spoke again, "Mirkshah, think it over.  Your God and mine are the same.  Then, why did you persecute my people ?"

Mirkshah was terrified and begged Udero, "My Lord, I realise my foolhardiness.  Please save me and my courtiers."  All at once the water receded and the fire died away.  Mirkshah bowed respectfully and agreed to treat Hindus and Muslims alike.  Before they dispersed, Uderolal told the Hindus to think of him as the embodiment of light and water.  He also told them to build a temple in memory of transformation of Mirkshah.  "Day in and out", he said "light a candle in the temple and always keep available water for daat (holy sip)".

Uderolal named his cousin, Pagad, as the first Thakur (Priest of the religious sect that believes in Water God).  Pagad followed Uderolal wherever he went.  Uderolal gave seven sysmbolic things to Pagad.  These seven from the essential elements of the Daryahi sect.  Uderolal asked Pagad to continue the sacred work of building temples and spread the message.

Selecting a place near village Thijahar, Uderolal gave up his earthly form.  Both Hindus and Muslims were present in the large number to witness this mysterious happening.  Mirkshah's representatives were also there.  No sooner Uderolal's soul left his body, they took charge and wanted to build a 'Turbat' or 'Qaba" at the site according to the dictates of Islam.  The Hindus wanted to erect a 'Samadhi' according to Hindu custom.  While the debate regard, heavy rains came down a voice said : "Behold ! You shall make my shrine acceptable both to Hindus and Muslims.  Let its one face be a temple and the other a Dargah (Shrine).  I belong to all of you."

Jhulelal continues to be the unifying force and the centre of all cultural activities of the Sindhi community.  The word Sindhi is derived from the river Sindhu (now in Pakistan)."  When Sindhi men venture out to sea their women pray to him for their safe return.  They offer the Lord prasad of akha, a sweet made from rice, ghee, sugar and flour.  Sindhis all over the world greet each other with "Jhulelal Bera-Hee-Paar".

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Jhulelal Sahib

Issued Date : 17.03.2013
Denomination : 500 Paise

Monday, March 20, 2017

Nanalal Dalpatram Kavi 1978 India Stamp

Nanalal Dalpatram Kavi was a famous poet associated with Gujarati literature, fondly called "Kavishwar" by Gujarathis. He is also referred to by the name, Nhanalal. An integral personality associated with Gujarati’s social and cultural lives, he wrote the most popular prayer song,Asatyo mahe thi, which is still sung in many schools across Gujarat.

He was the fourth son of Dalpatram, a pioneer of modern Gujarati Poetry.Vishva-Gita, Yug-Vandana, Jaya-Jayant, Ketlaak-Kaavyo, Nhana Nhana Raas and Hari Lilamratare his contributions to Gujarati literature. He hailed Mahatma Gandhi as Hermit of Gujarat on the occasion of his 50th birthday through a poem he composed in 1919.

Nanalal was born on March 16, 1877 in Ahmedabad as the fourth son of Dalpatram, who played a significant role in reviving Gujarati language through his poems and plays. Nanalal completed his Master’s in Arts before beginning his professional career as a school teacher. Later he become a college professor and taught students at Rajkumar College, Rajkot. Chief Justice of Rajkot in British India, followed by Education Officer Kathiawad in 1918 are the major roles he played later in his professional journey.
A Gandhian, he participated in Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921, resigning his government job.

A lyrical poet he was also a romantic poet who has also written plays, novels, short stories, biography, essays and critic works and also attempted narrative poetry on epic scale. He owned a distinctive diction of his own and has authored more than 80 books belonging to different genres.
His career as a poet spanned to about 50 years in the pre-independent era. His first work, Ketlaak-Kaavyo, a collection of poems was published in 1903, and the last one, Hari samhitawas published posthumously in 1959.

The  Department of  Posts released commemorative Postage Stamps paying tribute to him on his Centenary

Issued Date : 16. 03.1978
Denomination :25 Paise

Hampi Stone Chariot 1967 India Stamp

The Stone Chariot in Hampi is an artistic marvel that is renowned for its exquisite architecture. The Stone Chariot is located within the Vittala Temple complex that is situated in the north eastern part of Hampi. The striking chariot is considered  to be the most fascinating sculptural achievement of the Vijayanagara era.

This stunning structure of Hampi has become one of the most famous symbols of Karnataka Tourism. The structure is a huge attraction for the tourists and is often considered by the visitors as the highlight of their Hampi trail. The Stone Chariot at Hampi is one of the three famous stone chariots in India. The other two chariots are situated in Konark (Odissa) and Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu).

The Stone Chariot of the Vittala Temple complex is also known as the "Kallina Ratha" in Kannada, This ancient structure was built in the 16th century, during the rule of King Krishnadevaraya, one of the greatest kings of the Vijayanagara Empire.

It is believed that the idea for the construction of the chariot dates back to the time when King Krishnadevaraya  saw the famous stone chariot at the Konark Sun Temple in Odissa while waging war on the eastern state.

The architecture and beauty of the chariot at Konark Sun Temple fascinated him so much that he decided to construct a similar chariot in his own kingdom, Vijayanagara. As Hampi was the core of the  Vijayanagara Empire, he decided to build a magnificent  stone chariot in Hampi.

Interestingly, the locals at Hampi believe that the world will be destroyed the day the Stone Chariot of the Vittala Temple moves from its place.

The Stone Chariot represents  the artistic perfection of the craftsmen of the Vijayanagara period. The structure was carved with great precision. The Stone Chariot is actually a shrine that has been given the shape of a chariot and has been decorated with ornamental carvings.

The shrine is dedicated to Garuda, the mythical mount of Lord Vishnu. The temple had an image of Garuda enshrined inside the sanctum. It is regarded as one of the most beautiful monuments in Hampi.

The beautiful chariot is a piece of creative excellence. It was meant to be a decorative shrine and was not built for transportation. So, unlike the wooden temple chariots, this stone chariot never moved from its place since its construction more than 500 years ago.

The Stone Chariot is built in the Dravidian style of architecture. One of the specialties of the architecture of this structure is that the chariot looks as if it is a monolithic structure that has been carved out of a gigantic stone.

However, the colossal structure was built using a number of granite blocks of huge size. The joints of the granite blocks were hidden by exceptional carvings and it provided the chariot the look of a monolithic structure.

The chariot is built on an ornamental rectangular base that has a height of about one foot. The base platform is decorated with scenes from mythical battles. The chariot has four massive granite stone wheels attached to it with axis shafts. The wheels are decorated with floral motifs and are capable of revolving.

*The chariot has two elephants positioned at its front side. It seems as if the elephants are pulling the chariot. However, on careful observation it can be seen that the two elephants do not belong to the original structure of the chariot. They were added later on to replace the two horses that were carved into the front position of the chariot.*

It is presumed that the sculptures of the horses were somehow destroyed and the elephants were placed in front of the chariot as their replacement. In fact, the tails and the hind legs of the horses can be seen behind the structures of the elephants even now.

There was once a stone ladder that was used to access the sanctum of the shrine. The ladder can be seen between the sculptures of elephants.

The Stone Chariot is a representation of the rich sculptural beauty prevalent during the days of the Vijayanagara Empire. However, the structure has suffered some damage through the centuries.

Today The sanctum of the shrine once contained an image of Garuda. The sanctum is an empty structure now as the image is no longer there. The giant granite wheels of the chariot were designed for rotation. Some years ago the government cemented the wheels of the chariot and rendered them unmovable. This was done to protect the wheels from any further damage caused by their turning by the huge number of tourists.

There was a large superstructure of the chariot that has gone missing over the centuries. It is not clear whether it has crashed or was removed to protect the remaining part of the chariot. But it was definitely an impressive part of the stone chariot.

Now-a-days there are floodlights installed within the Vittala Temple complex. These floodlights illuminate the chariot in the evenings and provide an amazing view of the beautiful structure. The bright lights illuminating the structure against the backdrop of the dark night sky is a grand view that leaves the spectator mesmerised.

Department  of Posts  issued definitive  postage stamp on Hampi Stone Chariot along  with  4th Definitive-Agriculture & Tourism series.

Issued  Date :15.03.1967
Denomination: 70 Paise

Albert Einstein 1979 India Stamp

India had a special relations with Albert Einstein. He admired Indian philosophy and Mahatma Gandhi.

14th March 1979
Albert Einstein ( Physicist ) - Birth Centenary

Danmal Mathur 2009 India Stamp

Shri Danmal Mathur is remembered as a well known and highly respected luminary of Rajasthan. Multifaceted and diligent, he was born on 14th March 1904 in Ajmer and made a mark for himself as an educationist. His father, Munshi Kanmal Mathur, had been Housemaster of Kotah House in Mayo College earlier, and was known for being a man of principle and a disciplinarian.  A young Danmal imbibed his father’s qualities.

On 25th Feb., 1916 (when he was only 12) Danmalji was married to Roop Kanwar, daughter of Shri Devi Dayal Mathur of Kharwa.The adage ‘Behind every successful man is a woman’ is exemplified in its entirety by the support Shri Danmal received from his wife who managed the house-hold and brought up a large family, allowing her husband time to give to the innumerable professional, philanthropic, societal and other commitments he was destined to be a part of.

He passed his B.Sc. examination from  Government  College, Ajmer in 1927 where he was appointed ‘Demonstrator’ in Physics. He was HOD and Vice Principal Mayo College.

With a Bachelor’s degree from Government College, Ajmer, he went on to work as Demonstrator in Physics and later taught in Sardar High School, Bharatpur, for three years. The Principal of Mayo College in 1932, Mr. V.A.S. Shaw, recognizing his potential, appointed him to teach Geography in Mayo College. He rose to become Head of the Geography Department. Later, he went on to become Housemaster, then Vice Principal and also acting Principal before retirement in 1969.

He was the founder Principal of Vidya Niketan School in Bhilwara and the Mayoor School in Ajmer.

In 1947 Shri Danmal  accompanied  the Indian Scouts contingent as a senior member to Paris at the international Scouts Jamboree.

In 1952 Shri Danmal was awarded the Fulbright Scholarship to the USA where he impressed the various forums  he  addressed,  by his views on Education and his  expositions on Indian culture and religion. In  the  same year Shri Danmal was awarded the ‘International Service Star’ for his valuable  services by Lord Mountbatten of Burma and Chief Scout of India.

In his quest to spread the message of scouting, Shri Danmal started scouting in the Railways at the Mt. Abu camp in 1948. also took a contingent of scouts to Japan in 1953.

When Ajmer was merged with Rajasthan in 1956 Shri Danmal was appointed Divisional Secretary and later Commissioner of Rajasthan State Scouts  and Guides.It was because of his efforts in persuading the Government that a 17 acre permanent scouts campsite was set up at Pushkar Ghati, and land was allotted for setting up the Divisional Headquarters for Scouts in ‘Tope Dara’ in Ajmer.

*For his contribution to Scouting the National Headquarters of Bharat Scouts and Guides honoured him by decorating him first with the ‘Silver Star’ and subsequently, in 1970, with the ‘Silver Elephant’ the highest award in Scouting in India.*

Shri Mathur excelled in games also and achieved the rare distinction of captaining all the three major games; cricket, football and hockey in the same year in Govt. College, Ajmer. He was awarded the ‘Colvin Gold Medal’ in recognition of his sporting achievements in Govt. College.

*Subsequently, he played cricket for Rajputana and was in the team which played against the M.C.C. when it toured India and Australia in the thirties.*

“Maa’t Saab”, as he was affectionately called, endeared himself to his students and inspired confidence in them. Pursuit of excellence and commitment to the task in hand were the guiding principals of his life. Any history of Mayo College, Ajmer, the Scout movement in India and education in Rajasthan would be incomplete without mention of Danmal Mathur.

Department of Posts released commemorative postage stamp on Danmal Mathur.

Issued Date : 07.11.2009
Denomination :500 Paise

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Rashtriya Indian Military College 1997 India Stamp

The RIMC was the first public school of India set up on the lines of Eton and Harrow for a small number of carefully selected boys. It has even now retained its characteristics of being a cradle of excellence, leadership and bravery.

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), is an Inter Service Category 'A' establishment, administered through the Director General of Militry Training, Army Headquarters DHQ PO New Delhi-110011. Its origin to the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, inaugurated on 13th March 1922 by his Royal Highness, Prince Edward VIII the Prince of Wales. It was then located on the premises of the erstwhile Imperial Cadet Corps ( also called Rajwada Camp), set amidst 138 acres of lush green countryside adjacent to Garhi Village in Dehradun Cantonment.

During his address to the first thirty-seven cadets he said, "It is the first few blows on the anvil of the life that give the human weapon the set and temper that carry him through life's battles". The Prince also made reference to the old Indian tradition of "Guru and Chela". This relationship of mutual love and reverence has formed the basis of RIMC ethos. 

RIMC has a long history and rich traditions. Over the year the alumni has produced many leaders of society, both military as well as civil. Four chiefs of Army staff and one chief of the Air staff in India; one Commander-in-chief of the Army and two chief of the Air staff in Pakistan; scores of officers of General/Flag/Air rank, Commanding corps, fleets, wings and divisions and other distinguished appointments both sides of the border. Besides, many high civilian dignitaries like Governors, Ambassadors, Ministers and Captains of industry have passed through the RIMC's hallowed portals. Portraits of such luminaries adorn our walls at strategic places as inspiring beacons for young students of the day.

Second Lieutenant (Later Lieutenant general) P.S. Bhagat and free India’s first Param Vir Chakra of the Kashmir War of 1947, Major Somnath Sharma were both alumini of the RIMC.

In the sphere of sports and adventure activities, so important for building character, the RIMC has excelled at all India levels. The college squash team has more than once been the National champions in the under 16 category. In soccer, the college team remains one of the top few. The young cadets have taken to diversified disciplines such as mountaineering, white water rafting, naval cruises, desert safaris, hot air ballooning, mountain cycling and para sailing. Notable among recent mountaineering achievements has been the successful summitting of Mount Kedarnath dome (6830 meters) by four boys, thus setting a world record for the youngest to scale such a height. ‘The Cradle of Excellence’ has produced three Arjuna award winners comprising a leader of the Mount Everest expedition; participants of the renowned round the world sailing expedition on the yatch Trishna and in squash.

The Department  of  Posts  released commemorative postage stamps to mark the Platinum Jubilee of the Rashtriya Indian Military College, Dehra Dun.

Issued  Date : 13.03.97
Denomination : 200 Paise

Holi on 2002 Children’s Day India Stamp

One of the major festivals of India, Holi is celebrated with enthusiasm and gaiety on the full moon day in the month of Phalgun which is the month of March as per the Gregorian calendar.

Holi festival may be celebrated with various names and people of different states might be following different traditions. But, what makes Holi so unique and special is the spirit of it which remains the same throughout the country and even across the globe, wherever it is celebrated.

Entire country wears a festive look when it is time for Holi celebration. Market places get abuzz with activity as frenzied shoppers start making preparations for the festival. Heaps of various hues of gulal and abeer can be seen on the roadside days before the festival. Pichkaris in innovative and modern design too come up every year to lure the children who wish to collect them as Holi memorabilia and of course, to drench everybody in the town.

Womenfolk too start making early preparations for the holi festival as they cook loads of gujiya, mathri and papri for the family and also for the relatives. At some places specially in the north women also make papads and potato chips at this time.

Everybody gets delighted at the arrival of Holi as the season itself is so gay. Holi is also called the Spring Festival - as it marks the arrival of spring the season of hope and joy. The gloom of the winter goes as Holi promises of bright summer days. Nature too, it seems rejoices at the arrival of Holi and wears its best clothes. Fields get filled with crops promising a good harvest to the farmers and flowers bloom colouring the surroundings and filling fragrance in the air.

A Hindu festival, Holi has various legends associated with it. The foremost is as below :

(1)  The legend of demon King Hiranyakashyap who demanded everybody in his kingdom to worship him but his pious son, Prahlad became a devotee of Lord Vishnu. Hiranyakashyap wanted his son to be killed. He asked his sister Holika to enter a blazing fire with Prahlad in her lap as Holika had a boon which made he immune to fire. Story goes that Prahlad was saved by lord himself for his extreme devotion and evil minded Holika was burnt to ashes, for her boon worked only when she entered the fire alone.

Since that time, people light a bonfire, called Holika on the eve of Holi festival and celebrate the victory of good over evil and also the triumph of devotion to god. Children take special delight in the tradition and this has another legend attached to it. It says that there was once an ogress Dhundhi who used to trouble children in the kingdom of Prithu. She was chased away by children on the day of Holi. Therefore, children are allowed to play pranks at the time of 'Holika Dahan'.

(2) Some also celebrate the death of evil minded Pootana. The ogress tried to Lord Krishna as an infant by feeding it poisonous milk while executing the plan of Kansa, Krishna's devil uncle. However, Krishna sucked her blood and brought her end. Some who view the origin of festivals from seasonal cycles believe that Pootana represents winter and her death the cessation and end of winter.

(3) In South India, people worship Kaamadeva- the god of love and passion for his extreme sacrifice. According to a legend, Kaamadeva shot his powerful love arrow on Lord Shiva to revoke his interest in the worldly affairs in the interest of the earth. However, Lord Shiva was enraged as he was in deep mediation and opened his third eye which reduced Kaamadeva to ashes. Though, later on the request of Rati, Kaamadeva's wife, Shiva was pleased to restore him back.

On the eve of Holi, called Chhoti or Small Holi people gather at important crossroads and light huge bonfires, the ceremony is called Holika Dahan. This tradition is also followed in Gujarat and Orissa. To render greatfulness to Agni, god of Fire, gram and stalks from the harvest are also offered to Agni with all humility. Ash left from this bonfire is also considered sacred and people apply it on their foreheads. People believe that the ash protects them from evil forces.

Great excitement can be seen in people on the next day when it is actually the time for the play of colours. Shops and offices remain closed for the day and people get all the time to get crazy and whacky. Bright colours of gulal and abeer fill the air and people take turns in pouring colour water over each other. Children take special delight in spraying colours on one another with their pichkaris and throwing water balloons and passers by. Women and senior citizen form groups called tolis and move in colonies - applying colours and exchanging greetings. Songs, dance on the rhythm of dholak and mouthwatering Holi delicacies are the other highlights of the day.

Lovers too long to apply colours on their beloved. This has a popular legend behind it. It is said that the naughty and mischievous Lord Krishna started the trend of playing colours. He applied colour on her beloved Radha to make her one like him. The trend soon gained popularity amongst the masses. No wonder, there is no match to the Holi of Mathura, Vrindavan and Barsana - the places associated with the birth and childhood of Radha and Krishna.

There is also a tradition of consuming the very intoxicating bhang on this day to further enhance the spirit of Holi. It is so much fun to watch the otherwise sober people making a clown of themselves in full public display. Some, however, take bhang in excess and spoil the spirit. Caution should therefore be taken while consuming bhang delicacies.

After a funfilled and exciting day, the evenings the spent in sobriety when people meet friends and relatives and exchange sweets and festive greetings.

It is said the spirit of Holi encourages the feeling of brotherhood in society and even the enemies turn friend on this day. People of all communities and even religions participate in this joyous and colouful festival and strenthen the secular fabric of the nation.

Today Entire country wears a festive look during Holi celebration. Market places get abuzz with activity as frenzied shoppers start making preparations for the festival. Heaps of various hues of gulal and abeer can be seen on the roadside days before the festival. ! Sprinklers in innovative and modern design too come up every year to lure the children who wish to collect them as Holi memorabilia and of course, to drench everybody around.

The Department of Posts  issued a commemorative postage stamp featuring festival of Holi on 2002 Children’s Day

Issued  Date : 14.11.2002
Denomination :500 Paise